what is cement and types of cement

What is Cement and History of Cement

WHAT IS CEMENT AND HISTORY

What is Cement?

it is finely grinded power material, which can work as a binder when water is added to it.

it is a mixture of different compounds consisting mainly of silicates and aluminates of calcium formed out of silica, calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, and iron oxide. 

it works is same as glue we use for sticking two objects together, but it can bind natural compounds like sand and aggregate.

When water is added to cement the hydration process starts (hydration is the chemical process between water and cement) and which produce a bond between sand and aggregate.

In concrete, the material sand and aggregate give the mass or body to the rete, while cement it functions is to bind the two materials together and fill the between them to make hard concrete.

Nowadays there is various type of cement available in the market. cement type selection depends on the nature of work.

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History of Cement:

As historical research says that people of that time know about binding property of lime. In past people have been using the lime for making brick bond and other work. The Romans Empire used lime concretes and also developed the pozzolanic cements material of lime and certain volcanic earths.

This concrete and lime mortar continued to be used up to middle Ages.

history of cement
Joseph Aspdin

An English engineer Joseph Aspdin from Leeds city – England in 1824, successfully produced a powder made from the calcined mixture of limestone and clay.

After that, he has patented the material and name was given “Portland Cement”, because when it hardened it produced a material similar to stones from the quarries near Portland Island in the UK.

With the time a process of manufacturing of cement has changed but formula and material remain the same.

Later, Isaac Charles Johnson in 1845 had some experiment. he burnt a mixture of clay and chalk till the clinkering stage to make better cement and established factories in 1851

In 1877, The German standard specification for Portland cement was drawn.

In 1904, The British standard specification was first drawn and moreover, The first ASTM specification was issued in 1904.

In India, it was first manufactured in 1904 near Madras, by the South India Industrial Ltd. But this venture failed.

 The cement manufacturing unit in Turkey was first started in Darica Cement Factory in 1913 with a production capacity of 20,000 ton/year.

WHAT IS CEMENT AND HISTORY

Raw Materials of Portland Cement:                                

Raw Materials:
  1. Calcareous rocks material (CaCO3 > 75% such as limestone, marl, chalk),
  2. Argillaceous rocks material (CaCO3 < 40% such as clay and shale),
  3. Argillocalcareous rocks material (40-75% CaCO3 such as clayey limestone, clayey marl).

• Portland cement can be manufactured from any two groups above. This raw material must be used in proper form and proportions of lime, silica, and alumina.

Importance in Construction

It is widely used binding material in the construction industry. After its invention Cement become popular among all other building materials. it almost absolute the use of other binding material likes clay and lime. We can say that cement is ruling construction form past hundreds of years. It is a major element in concrete and it can hold the structure together for a long time.

Why Cement is Popular Building Material:

  • its use is the same form all around the world.
  • It can bind other construction material together.
  • It is vast application in the construction industry like, for plastering, tiling, finishing, interior, and exterior work finish, etc.
  • It is made today modern world possible.

According to the Cement Manufacturers Association, India is the second-largest Cement Industry in the world by consuming 8% of the global cement installed capacity. Also, the Indian cement industry is the largest consumer of fly ash produced by the thermal power plant of India. India almost consumes 100% of slag produced by steel plant of India.

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Types Available in India

  • Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
  • Rapid Hardening Cement
  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement
  • Quick Setting Cement
  • Low Heat Cement
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement
  • Portland Slag Cement (PSC)
  • High Alumina Cement
  • White Cement
  • Coloured Cement
  • Air Entraining Cement
  • Hydrophobic Cement
  • Masonry Cement
  • Expansive Cement
  • Oil Well Cement

Types Available in Europe 

Classification as per Euro EN 197-1

  • CEM I (Portland cement)
  • CEM II (Portland-composite cement)
  • CEM III (Blast furnace cement)
  • CEM IV (Pozzolanic cement)
  • CEM V (Composite cement)

Types Available in USA 

Classification as per ASTM C150

  • Type I (Portland cement)
  • Type II (Sulphate Resisting Cement)
  • Type III (Rapid Hardening Cement)
  • Type IV (Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
  • Type V (Hydrophobic Cement)

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