Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

Setting Time of Cement | Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test | Initial Setting Time of Cement | Final Setting Time of Cement7 min read

What Is Setting Time of Cement?

Initial setting time gives an idea about how fast cement can start losing its plasticity and the final setting time of cement gives an idea about how much cement takes to lose its full plasticity and gain some strength to resist pressure.


Initial Setting Time of Cement

It is the time elapsed between the moments that the water is added to the cement, to the time that the paste starts losing its plasticity.


Final Setting Time of Cement

It is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement and the time when cement paste loses its plasticity completely and has attained sufficient firmness to resist certain definite pressure. 

Read More: What Is Cement And History Of Cement


Tests On Cement

The following tests are conducted on cement in the laboratory are as follows:

  1. Fineness Test of Cement
  2. Consistency Test of Cement
  3. Setting Time Test of Cement
  4. Soundness Test of Cement
  5. Heat of Hydration Test
  6. Speicific Gravity Test of Cement
  7. Tensile Strength Test
  8. Chemical Composition Test

Significance of Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

  • It is required that cement does not lose its plasticity too early or too late. If cement set too early, there is insufficient time for transportation and place concrete.
  • If cement set too late then there is a delay in construction work. Also, concrete will not get sufficient strength early and the formwork removal process delayed.
  • The proper setting time required for the stiffening of cement paste to a defined consistency.
  • It is indirectly related to the chemical reaction of cement with water to form an aluminum-silicate compound.
  • Initial setting time is an important time to know for concrete transportation, placing, and curing.
  • Initial setting time also utilized to delay the process of hydration or hardening.
  • The final setting time utilized for the safe removal of scaffolding or form.

Factors Affecting Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

The fineness of cement, the presence of salts in sand, atmospheric conditions. For example, cement requires a temperature of 27°c to complete Hydration, during winters the climate is low which stops the hydration and takes a longer time to set harden.


IS Code for Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

As Per  IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988 The initial and final setting time of cement is calculated using the VICAT apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 – 1976.

Apparatus

Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement
Apparatus Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

1. Balance – The permissible variation at a load of 1000 g shall be ± 1.0 g.

2. Vicat Apparatus – Vicat apparatus should confirm to IS: 5513-1976.

3. Stop Watch

4. Gauging or Mixing Trowel

5. Glass Plate

6. Enamel tray

Read More: Consistency Test Of Cement Test, Calculation & Result


Test Procedure for Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

Preparation of Test

1. Consistency of cement shall be tested before conducting a test to find out % of the water required by the weight of cement as normal consistency of cement (P).

2. Take about 400 gm of cement and add water about 0.85x P (P is % water required for normal consistency of cement)

3. Mix water with cement quickly in a short time about 3 min to 5 min. Start the stopwatch at the instance when water is added to the cement. Record this time (T1).

4. Now, fill this prepared cement paste in Vicat apparatus mould having a diameter of 80 mm and a height of 50 mm resting on non –porous glass plate. Properly fill and smooth off the top surface of mould and level it.

I. Procedure of Initial Setting Time of Cement

1. For determining the initial setting time of cement, place this mould filled with cement paste below the Vicat apparatus and fit the needle used for testing the initial setting time.

2. Lower the bottom of the needle such that it touches the top of cement paste filled in mould.

3. Remove the locking pin from the top and quick release the needle, allowing it to penetrate into the cement paste.

4. At the beginning, the needle penetrates and touches the bottom of mould. Repeat this process, like quickly releasing the needle after every 2 minutes till the needle fails to penetrate the cement paste for about 5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould.

5.  Note Time (T2) when needle fails to penetrate 5 mm from the bottom of mould.

Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

II. Procedure of Initial Setting Time of Cement

1. For determining the final setting time of cement replace the needle with another needle having angular ring attachment.

2. Now, slightly release this needle on the surface of cement paste and observe that it is making an impression of the ring on the surface or not. Not the time when need fails to make an impression of the surface of cement paste. (T2)

Calculation of Initial and Final Time:

Initial setting time of cement = Time when needle fails to penetrate 5 m from the bottom of mould.(T2)  – The time when added to cement (T1)

Final setting time of cement = Time when angular need ring impression stop on cement paste (T3) – Time when water added to cement (T1)

Read More: Soundness Test Of Cement – Procedure And Results


Practical Calculations

Suppose, Consistency of cement (P)  = 30%  and Weight of cement = 400 kg

Water to be added in cement = (0.85 x P ) x 400 =  (0.85 x 30%) x 400 = 102 ml

Time when water added to cement = 7:00 am

Time, when needle fails to penetrate less than 5 mm from the bottom of mould = 7:45, am

Initial Setting Time  of Cement = 7:45 am  – 7:00 am  = 45 min.

Time When angular ring needle fails to make impression on the surface of cement paste = 12:00 pm

Final setting Time of Cement = 12:00 pm – 7:00 am = 5 hr = 300 min.


Standard Values of Initial and Final Setting Time for Various Cement

There are various types of cement used in the construction industry. Depending on the types of cement and admixture used in the manufacturing of cement initial setting time and final setting time are differs for cement. The standard-setting time for different types of cement is given below.

Name of CementRef. IS CodeInitial Setting Time(min)Final Setting Time(Max)
OPC (33)IS: 26930600
OPC (43)IS: 811230600
OPC (53)IS: 1226930600
SRCIS: 1233030600
PPCIS: 1489.P130600
RHPCIS: 804130600
PSCIS: 45530600
High AluminaIS: 645230600
Super SulphateIS: 690930600
Low HeatIS: 1260060600
Masonry CementIS: 3466901440
IRS – T -40Railway60600
Types of Cement and Their Initial and Final Setting Times

FAQs:

Initial Setting of Cement

It is the time elapsed between the moments that the water is added to the cement, to the time that the paste starts losing its plasticity. It should be less than 30 min for OPC cement

Final Setting Time of Cement

It is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement and the time when cement paste loses its plasticity completely and has attained sufficient firmness to resist certain definite pressure.  It should not be more than 600 min for OPC cement.

Initial and Final Setting Time of OPC Cement?

For OPC, the Minimum setting initial setting is 30 min and the maximum final setting time is 600 min.

Initial setting time of PPC cement?

The Minimum initial setting time of PPC cement is 30 min.

Setting Time of Cement

Initial setting time gives an idea about how fast cement can start losing its plasticity and the final setting time of cement gives an idea about how much cement takes to lose its full plasticity and gain some strength to resist pressure.

Setting Time Test of Cement

The setting Time of the cement test is conducted to find out the initial and final setting time of any cement. Initial Setting Time is the time elapsed between the moments that the water is added to the cement, to the time that the paste starts losing its plasticity. It is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement and the time when cement paste loses its plasticity completely

Watch Video: Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test


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