Bricks are regular size rectangular units. Bricks are made of clay. There are 30+ Types of Brick used in construction work. Bricks are mostly used as a substitute for stone when the stone is not available.
Brick is an important construction material which generally available in rectangular shapes manufactured from clay. They are very popular from the olden days to the modern days because of their low cost and durability.
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Types of Bricks Used In Construction
1. First Class Brick
The size of these bricks is standard. The color of these bricks is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt, regular texture, uniform shape. The absorption capacity is less than 10%, crushing strength is 280 kg/cm2.
It doesn’t have efflorescence. It emits a metallic sound when struck by similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is free from pebbles, gravel, or organic matters.
It is generally used in a building of long durability, for building exposes to a corrosive environment etc.
2. Second Class Brick
The size of this brick is standard & color is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt, slightly over burnt is acceptable. It has a regular shape; efflorescence is not appreciable. The absorption capacity is more than 10% but less than 15%. The crushing strength is 175 kg/cm2. It emits a metallic sound when struck by similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is used for the construction of one-storied buildings, temporary sheds when intended durability is more than 15 years.
3. Third Class Brick
The shape and size are not regular. The color is soft and light red-colored. It is under burnt, slightly over burnt is acceptable. It has extensive efflorescence. The texture is non-uniform. The absorption capacity is more than 15% but less than 20%. The crushing strength is 140 kg/cm2. It emits a dull or burnt sound when struck by another similar brick. It leaves fingernail expression when one tries to do with the thumbnail.
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1. Unburnt Bricks
These are half-burnt bricks. The color is yellow. The strength is low. They are used as surkhi in lime terracing. They are used as soiling under RCC footing or basement. Such bricks should not be exposed to rainwater.
2. Burnt Bricks
Burnt bricks are manufactured by heating them in the kiln. First class, Second class and Third class bricks are burnt bricks and are generally used in ordinary construction.
3. Over Burnt or Jhama Bricks
jhama bricks is also known as the vitrified brick as it is fired at high temperatures and for a longer period of time than conventional bricks. As a result, the shape is distorted. The absorption capacity is high.
The strength is higher or equivalent or first-class bricks. These bricks are used as lime concrete for the foundation concrete. It is also used as a coarse aggregate in the concrete slab.
4. Extruded Brick
It is made by mixing water and clay in a steel die, with a very regular shape and size, then cutting the resulting column into shorter units with wires before firing. It is used in construction with limited budgets. It has three or four holes constituting up to 20% volume of the brick.
5. Molded Brick
It is shaped in molds by hand rather being in the machine. Molded bricks between 50-65 mm are available instantly. Other size and shapes are available in 6-8 weeks after the order.
6. Dry Pressed Brick
It is the traditional types of brick which are made by pressing clay into molds. It has a deep frog in one bedding surface and a shallow frog on another. These are premium tyoes of brick
7. Burnt Clay Brick:
It is obtained by pressing the clay in molds and fried and fired & dried in kilns. It is the most used bricks. It requires plastering when used in construction works.
8. Fly Ash Clay Brick
It is manufactured when fly ash and clay are molded in 1000 ᵒC. It contains a high volume of calcium oxide in fly ash. That is why usually described as self-cementing. It usually expands when coming into contact with moisture. It is less porous than clay bricks. It proved a smooth surface so it doesn’t need plastering.
9. Concrete Brick
These brick type is made of concrete. It is the least used brick. It has high compression strength and the quality of brick is high. These bricks are generally provided above and below the damp proof course.
These brick types are used can be used for facades and internal brickworks because of their sound reductions and heat resistance qualities. It is also called mortar brick. It can be of different colors if the pigment is added differently during the manufacturing of concrete.
10. Sand-lime Brick
Sand, fly ash and lime are mixed and molded under pressure. During wet mixing, a chemical reaction takes place to bond the mixtures.
Then they are placed in the molds. The color is greyish as it offers something of an aesthetic view. It gives a smoother finish and uniform appearance than clay bricks. It is used as a load-bearing member as it is very strong in crushing strength.
11. Fire Bricks
This brick types is also known as refractory bricks. It is manufactured from a specially designed earth. After burning, it can withstand very high temperatures without affecting its shape, size, and strength. It is used for the lining of chimneys and furnaces where the usual temperature is expected to be very high.
12. Facing Brick
The facade material of any wall or structure is known as facing brick. Facing bricks are standard in size, are stronger than other bricks and also have better durability.
The color is red or brown shades to provide a more aesthetic look to the building. There are many types of facing bricks which use different techniques and technology. Facing bricks should be efficient in weather resistant as they are generally used on the exterior wall of buildings.
13. Backing Brick
These types of bricks don’t have any special features or quality. They are only used behind the facing bricks to provide support to the wall.
14. Severe Weather Grade
These types of bricks are used in the countries which are covered in snow most of the time of year. These bricks are resistant to any kind of freeze-thaw actions.
15. Moderate Weather Grade
These types of bricks are mostly used in tropical countries where there are small weather fluctuations. They can withstand any high temperature.
16. No Weather Grade
These bricks don’t have any weather resisting capabilities and used on the inside walls of the buildings.
17. Common Bricks
These bricks are the most common bricks used. They don’t have any special features or requirements. They have low resistance, low quality, low compressive strength. They are normally used in the interior walls.
18. Engineering Bricks
These bricks are known for many reasons. They have high compressive strength and low absorption capacity. They are very strong and dense. They have good bearing capacity, damp proof, and chemical resistance properties. They have a uniform red color.
They are classified as Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A is the strongest but Class b is most used. They are used for mainly civil engineering works like sewers, manholes, groundworks, retaining walls, damp proof courses, etc.
Read More: What is Gypsum Plaster?
Types of bricks based on shape
19. Bull Nosed Brick:
These bricks are molded into round angles. They are used for rounded quoin.
20. Air Brick
These types of brick contain holes to circulated air. They are used on suspended floors and cavity walls.
21. Channel Bricks:
They are molded into the shape of a gutter or channel. They are used in drains.
22. Cow Nose Brick:
Bricks having double bullnose known as cow nose bricks.
23. Capping Bricks:
These types of brick are used to cap the tops of parapets or freestanding walls.
24. Brick Veneers
These bricks are thin and used for cladding.
25. Curved Sector Bricks:
These are curved in shape. They are used in arcs, pavements etc.
26. Hollow Bricks
These types of bricks are around one-third of the weight of the normal bricks. They are also called cellular or cavity bricks. Their thickness is from 20-25mm. They are used in partitioning.
27. Paving Bricks
These bricks contain a good amount of iron. Iron vitrifies bricks at low temperatures. They are used in gardens, park floors, pavements. These bricks withstand the abrasive force of vehicles thus making the floor less slippery and also the chances of accidents are also less.
28. Perforated Bricks
These types of bricks contain cylindrical holes. They are very light in weight. Their preparation method is also easy. They consume less clay than the other bricks. They can be of different shapes like round, square, rectangular. They are used in the construction of the panels for lightweight structures and multistoried frame structures.
29. Purpose Made Bricks
The Purpose Made Bricks are manufactured for specific purposes, these bricks are made. Splay and can’t bricks are made for doors and windows jambs. Engineering bricks are made for civil engineering construction such as sewers, manholes, retaining walls. Fire bricks are made for chimneys and fireworks. Ornamental bricks are made to use for cornices, corbels. Arch bricks are used in arcs.
How to Check the Quality of Bricks at Construction Site?
- To build a good quality structure, observation quality of materials is important. Here we listed about how good bricks are recognized at the construction site.
- The color of bricks should be bright and uniform.
- They should be well burned and having smooth surfaces and sharp edges.
- Thermal conductivity of bricks should be less and they should be soundproof.
- They shouldn’t absorb more than 20% by weight when we placed it in water.
- When we struck two bricks together, ringing sound should be delivered.
- The structure of bricks should be homogeneous and uniform.
- The brick should not break when we dropped it from 1m height.
- There should not be any scratch left on the brick when we scratched with fingernails.
- There should not be any white deposits on a brick when we soaked it in water for 24 hrs.
how many types of bricks
There are 30 types of brick used in construction but few are most popular like first class brick, fly ash brick, fire brick, refractory brick etc
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