Types of Bricks used in Construction

30 Types of Bricks Used In Construction

Bricks are a building material made from clay or a mixture of clay and other materials, molded into various shapes and sizes. They have been used for construction for thousands of years and continue to be a popular choice due to their durability, fire resistance, and thermal insulation properties.

There are several different types of bricks, including clay, concrete, fly ash, and others, each with its own unique properties and characteristics. Understanding the different types of bricks can help architects, builders, and consumers make informed decisions about the materials they use in construction projects.

Types of Bricks Used In Masonry Construction

The following are brick types used in construction,

1. First Class Brick

types of bricks
First Class Bricks

These bricks have standard sizes and dimensions. The color of these bricks is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt, has a regular texture, and uniform shape. The absorption capacity is less than 10%, crushing strength is 280 kg/cm2.

It doesn’t have efflorescence. It emits a metallic sound when struck by similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is free from pebbles, gravel, or organic matters.

It is generally used in a building of long durability, for buildings exposed to a corrosive environment etc.


2. Second Class Brick

types of bricks
Second Class Bricks

These bricks do not have a standard size & the color is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt, slightly over burnt is acceptable. It has a regular shape; efflorescence is not appreciable. The absorption capacity is more than 10% but less than 15%.

The crushing strength is 175 kg/cm2. It emits a metallic sound when struck by similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is used for the construction of one-storied buildings, temporary sheds when intended durability is more than 15 years.


3. Third Class Brick

types of bricks
Third Class Bricks

The shape and size are not regular. The color is soft and light red-colored. It is under burnt, slightly over burnt is acceptable. It has extensive efflorescence. The texture is non-uniform. The absorption capacity is more than 15% but less than 20%.

The crushing strength is 140 kg/cm2. It emits a dull or burnt sound when struck by another similar brick. It leaves a fingernail expression when one tries to do with the thumbnail. These bricks are not recommended for quality construction work.

Read More: 14 Types of Brick Bond and Their Advantages


1. Unburnt Bricks

types of bricks
Second Class Bricks

These are half-burnt bricks. The color is yellow. The strength is low. They are used as Turki in lime terracing. These bricks are used as soiling under RCC footing or basement. Such bricks should not be exposed to rainwater.


2. Burnt Bricks

types of bricks
Burnt Bricks

Burnt bricks are manufactured by heating them in the kiln. First-class, Second class, and Third class bricks are burnt bricks and are generally used in ordinary construction.


3. Over Burnt or Jhama Bricks

types of bricks
Over Burnt Bricks

The jhama bricks are also known as the vitrified brick as it is fired at high temperatures and for a longer period of time than conventional bricks. As a result, the shape is distorted. The absorption capacity is high.

The strength is higher or equivalent or first-class bricks. These bricks are used as lime concrete for the foundation concrete. It is also used as a coarse aggregate in the concrete slab.


4. Extruded Brick

types of bricks
Extruded Brick

It is made by mixing water and clay in a steel die, with a very regular shape and size, then cutting the resulting column into shorter units with wires before firing. It is used in construction with limited budgets. These bricks have three or four holes constituting up to 20% volume of the brick.


5. Molded Brick

types of bricks
Molded Brick

It is shaped in molds by hand rather than being in the machine. Molded bricks between 50-65 mm are available instantly. Other sizes and shapes are available 6-8 weeks after the order.


6. Dry Pressed Brick

types of bricks
Dry Pressed Brick

It is the traditional brick which are made by pressing clay into molds. It has a deep frog on one bedding surface and a shallow frog on another.

Read More: Which Is Best Cement for House Construction In India


7. Burnt Clay Brick

It is obtained by pressing the clay in molds and fried and fired & dried in kilns. It is the most used brick. It requires plastering when used in construction works.


8. Fly Ash Clay Brick

types of bricks
Fly Ash Bricks

It is manufactured when fly ash and clay are molded in 1000 C. It contains a high volume of calcium oxide in fly ash. That is why usually described as self-cementing.

It usually expands when coming into contact with moisture. It is less porous than clay bricks. It proved a smooth surface so it doesn’t need plastering.


9. Concrete Brick

types of bricks
Concrete Bricks

This brick type is made of concrete. It is the least used brick. It has high compression strength and the quality of brick is high. These bricks are generally provided above and below the damp-proof course.

These brick types are used can be used for facades and internal brickworks because of their sound reductions and heat resistance qualities. It is also called mortar brick. It can be of different colors if the pigment is added differently during the manufacturing of concrete.


10. Sand-lime Brick

types of bricks
Sand-lime Brick

Sand, fly ash, and lime are mixed and molded under pressure. During wet mixing, a chemical reaction takes place to bond the mixtures.

Then they are placed in the molds. The color is greyish as it offers something of an aesthetic view. It gives a smoother finish and uniform appearance than clay bricks. It is used as a load-bearing member as it is very strong in crushing strength.

11. Fire Bricks

types of bricks

Fire Brick

This brick type is also known as refractory bricks. It is manufactured from a specially designed earth. After burning, it can withstand very high temperatures without affecting its shape, size, and strength.

It is used for the lining of chimneys and furnaces where the usual temperature is expected to be very high.

Read More: Fly Ash Bricks Vs Clay Bricks – Which Is Better?

12. Facing Brick

The facade material of any wall or structure is known as facing brick. Facing bricks are standard in size, are stronger than other bricks, and also have better durability.

The color is red or brown shades to provide a more aesthetic look to the building. There are many types of facing bricks that use different techniques and technology. Facing bricks should be efficient in weather resistance as they are generally used on the exterior wall of buildings.

types of bricks
Facing Bricks

13. Backing Brick

These bricks don’t have any special features or quality. They are only used behind the facing bricks to provide support to the wall.

14. Severe Weather Grade

These bricks are used in countries that are covered in snow most of the time of year. These bricks are resistant to any kind of freeze-thaw action.

15. Moderate Weather Grade

These bricks are mostly used in tropical countries where there are small weather fluctuations. They can withstand any high temperature.

16. No Weather Grade

These bricks don’t have any weather resisting capabilities and are used on the inside walls of the buildings.

17. Common Bricks

These bricks are the most common bricks used. They don’t have any special features or requirements. They have low resistance, low quality, low compressive strength. They are normally used in the interior walls.

18. Engineering Bricks

These bricks are known for many reasons. They have high compressive strength and low absorption capacity. They are very strong and dense. They have good bearing capacity, damp proof, and chemical resistance properties. They have a uniform red color.

They are classified as Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A is the strongest but Class b is most used. They are used for mainly civil engineering works like sewers, manholes, groundworks, retaining walls, damp proof courses, etc.

Read More: What is Gypsum Plaster?

Bricks Based On The Shape

19. Bull Nosed Brick

These bricks are molded into round angles. They are used for rounded quoin.

types of bricks
Bull Nosed Bricks

20. Air Brick

These brick contain holes to circulate air. They are used on suspended floors and cavity walls.

different types of bricks
Air Bricks

21. Channel Bricks

They are molded into the shape of a gutter or channel. They are used in drains.

22. Cow Nose Brick

Bricks have double bullnose known as cow nose bricks.

23. Capping Bricks

These brick are used to cap the tops of parapets or freestanding walls.

24. Brick Veneers

These bricks are thin and used for cladding.

 25. Curved Sector Bricks

These are curved in shape. They are used in arcs, pavements, etc.

26. Hollow Bricks

types of bricks used in construction
Hollow Brick

These bricks are around one-third of the weight of normal bricks. They are also called cellular or cavity bricks. Their thickness is from 20-25mm. They are used in partitioning.

27. Paving Bricks

types of bricks
Paving Bricks

These bricks contain a good amount of iron. Iron vitrifies bricks at low temperatures. They are used in gardens, park floors, pavements. These bricks withstand the abrasive force of vehicles thus making the floor less slippery and also the chances of accidents are also less.

28. Perforated Bricks

types of bricks
Perforated Bricks:

These bricks contain cylindrical holes. They are very light in weight. Their preparation method is also easy. They consume less clay than the other bricks. They can be of different shapes like round, square, rectangular. They are used in the construction of panels for lightweight structures and multistoried frame structures.

29. Purpose Made Bricks

types of bricks
Purpose Made Bricks

The Purpose Made Bricks are manufactured for specific purposes, these bricks are made. Splay and can’t bricks are made for doors and windows jambs. Engineering bricks are made for civil engineering construction such as sewers, manholes, retaining walls.

Fire bricks are made for chimneys and fireworks. Ornamental bricks are made to use for cornices, corbels. Arch bricks are used in arcs.

How to Check the Quality of Bricks at Construction Site?

  • To build a good quality structure, observation quality of materials is important. Here we listed about how good bricks are recognized at the construction site.
  • The color of bricks should be bright and uniform.
  • They should be well burned and having smooth surfaces and sharp edges.
  • Thermal conductivity of bricks should be less and they should be soundproof.
  • They shouldn’t absorb more than 20% by weight when we placed it in water.
  • When we struck two bricks together, ringing sound should be delivered.
  • The structure of bricks should be homogeneous and uniform.
  • The brick should not break when we dropped it from 1m height.
  • There should not be any scratch left on the brick when we scratched with fingernails.
  • There should not be any white deposits on a brick when we soaked it in water for 24 hrs.

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4 thoughts on “30 Types of Bricks Used In Construction”

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  4. It’s great that you pointed out how bricks are very popular from the olden days to the modern days because of their low cost and durability. My wife and I are planning to build a new house and we need to get some building supplies for it first. Having bricks on our house would be good, so I’ll try to make sure to have some in supply while we’re building the house.

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