What Is Building?
Any enclosed or open space with a roof, sidewall, foundation, W.C. & bath, etc., is called a Building.
In these Tents, tarpaulin shelters and slums without foundations, walls, and rigid roofs erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions shall not be considered as buildings, even when they are used for longer periods.
Types of Building
The following are various types of building,
1. Residential Buildings
Residential buildings are those in which at least a sleeping facility is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities (except institutional buildings).
It includes single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses (flats), lodgings or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories, and residential hotels.
2. Educational Buildings
These include any building used for school, college, or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education, or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.
3. Institutional Buildings
Institutional buildings are used for various purposes such as medical treatment other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants or old age persons care, and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.
The institutional buildings are major including sleeping accommodation for the occupants.
They include hospitals, sanitoria, custodial institutions, or penal institutions like jails, prisons, and mental asylums.
4. Assembly Buildings
These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil, travel, and similar purposes; such as theatres, motion picture houses, marriage halts, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, assembly halls museums.
Also Included skating rinks, city halls gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls), places of worship, dance halts, dub rooms, passenger stations, terminals of air, surface, and other public transportation services, recreation places and stadia, etc.
5. Business Buildings
These buildings are used for the transaction of business (other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for the keeping of accounts and records, and for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional establishments, courthouses, and libraries.
The major activities in this type of building are the transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records.
6. Mercantile Buildings
This type of building is used for selling a small product in which small shops, stores, markets, for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located is known as Mercantile building.
7. Industrial Buildings
Type of building in which raw material process and material fabrication, processing or assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, power plants, pumping stations, smokehouses, laundries, gas plants, refineries, dairies, and sawmills.
8. Storage Buildings
Storage buildings are those in which material is stored or sheltering facilities are provided for goods like wares or merchandise.
This building is also being used for handling highly combustible material in warehouses, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, trucks, marine terminals, garages, and hangars (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns, and stables.
9. Hazardous Building
The hazardous building used for storage of such materials or chemicals that are highly dangerous to humans or it may pollute the environment.
They have majorly used storage, processing of highly combustible material handling, manufacture or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and poisonous elements, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, Poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases.
These buildings are also used for material processing which produces explosive mixtures of dust that result in the of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.
Classification of Buildings
The building is classified as follows,
1. Residential buildings
2. Educational buildings
3. Institutional buildings
4. Assembly buildings
5. Business buildings
6. Mercantile buildings
7. Industrial buildings
8. Storage buildings
9. Hazardous buildings
Different Types of Building Construction
Types of building in civil engineering are
1. Residential buildings
2. Educational building
3. Institutional Building
3. Assembly Building
4. Business Building
5. Industrial Building
6. Storage Building
7. Hazardous buildings
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