What Is A Stone?
Stone is a naturally occurring, solid, and durable material that is commonly used in construction. It is made up of minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, mica, and others, and can be found in a wide variety of colors, textures, and patterns.
Stones are formed through geological processes, such as erosion, heat, and pressure, and can be found in various sizes, from small pebbles to large boulders.
Stones are used for a wide variety of purposes, including building walls, floors, and roofs, as well as for decorative purposes in landscaping and interior design.
They are known for their strength, durability, and natural beauty, and are often used in combination with other building materials, such as bricks, concrete, and wood.
What Is Rock?
A rock is a hard, naturally formed, non-living earth material. Which is made up of single or more minerals that minerals are either held together or tightly compacted.
Types of rock depend upon several factors:
- Composition of chemical
- Grain Size
The Followings Are Major Types of Rock
- Igneous rock
- Metamorphic rock
- Sedimentary rock
Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and converts into a solid form. Also, these rocks formed at high temperatures.
This cooling can either be intrusive( which means inside the earth) or extrusive( which means outside the earth).
In intrusive the magma cools gradually and solidifies into an igneous rock during plutonic and in extrusive the magma cools very quickly during a volcanic eruption.
Examples of igneous rocks
Sedimentary rocks are made up of sedimentation and deposition of older rocks. During erosion, rocks are broken and transported by water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and oceans and lithify at the surface of the earth.
In the rock cycle, Sedimentary rocks are considered a recycler. Because they take any rock and convert it into a new rock.
Examples of sedimentary rock
Metamorphic rocks are formed by the change in temperature, change in pressure, and change in the chemical composition of the pre-existing rock. They convert existing rock into new rock.
Examples of metamorphic rocks
Types of Stones Used In Construction
The following are the most useful types of stone used in construction,
- Ballast and Trap
- Lime Stone
Granite is an igneous type of stone. Granite is hard and durable. Also, it is available in so many colors. Granites are used in construction work such as steps, walls, kitchens, frames of doors and windows, etc.
It is not suitable for carving purposes. The specific gravity of granite is 2.0 to 2.7 and its Compressive strength varies from 770 kg/ cm2 to 1300 kg/cm2.it is easily available in many places.
Ballast is an igneous type of rock. Ballast is also known as trap. It is hard so that difficult to work with using this type of stone. It is specific gravity is 3 and its compressive strength is 1530kg/cm2 to 1890 kg/cm2.
Ballast is used in foundation work, masonry, road metal, etc. it is easily found in Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P., Bengal, and Bihar.
Chalk is a sedimentary type of rock. The Colour of the chalk is pure white. It is the texture in powder form. Chalk is used in the manufacturing of Portland cement and putty work.
Gneisses are a metamorphic type of stone. It is specific gravity is 2.69 and its compressive strength is 2100 kg/cm2. Gneisses are commonly used in street paving, masonry work, etc.
Also, it is easy to use. It is locally found in Mysore, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, A.P., Bihar, and Madras.
Limestone is a Sedimentary type of stone. It consists of carbonate of lime. It is specific gravity is 2 to 2.75 and its compressive strength is 550 kg/ cm2.
Uses of limestones are for many purposes like for flooring, step, wall, manufacture of lime, etc. Limestone is locally found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Andaman Island, Himachal Pradesh, M.P., and Bihar.
Marble is a metamorphic rock. It is available in different colors. It is specific gravity is 2.65 and its compressive strength is 720 kg/cm2.
Marble is used for flooring purposes, steps, facing work, etc. marble is easily carved and sawn. Marble is locally found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, A.P., M. P., U.P., and Mysore.
Murum is a metamorphic type. The Colour of murum is deep brown or red. It is made of by composition of laterite stone. Murum is used in the garden wall, for fancy paths, etc.
Kankar is a sedimentary type of stone. It is used in the manufacturing of hydraulic lime, road metal, etc. it is easily found in Central India and North India.
Laterite is a type of metamorphic rock. Its qualities are porous, has a high percentage of oxide in iron, and is easily quarried. The laterite is available in different colors.
It is compressive strength is 18 to 32 kg/cm2. Also, it’s used in stone masonry, building stone, and road metal, etc.
Slate is a metamorphic type of rock. Its specific gravity is 2.89 and compressive strength is 770 kg/cm2 to 2110 kg/cm2. Slates are used for roofing purposes damp proof courses and sills work etc.
The slate is available in black color. Also, it has non-absorbent properties. It is locally found in U.P, M.P, Mysore, Rajasthan, and Madras.
Sand Stone is a sedimentary stone. It is easily dressed in any shape and size. Also available in various colors.
The specific gravity of sandstones is from 2.65 to 2.95 and the Compressive strength is 650 kg/cm2.use of sandstones is for flooring purposes, wall, and carving purposes.
Quartzite is a metamorphic type of rock. It is used in pitching work, rubble masonry, facing of building and retaining walls, etc. Quartzite texture is hard, brittle, and compact.
Read More: Granite Flooring | Granite Flooring Types
Requirement of Good Building Stone
The following are the quality requirements of good building stones:
Generally, the building stones have a high strength so that they resist the coming load on them. therefore no need to check every time quality of the stones.
But when stones are used in large structures it becomes necessary to check the compressive strength of the stone. The compressive strength of stones range is 60 to 200 N/mm2.
Stones are capable to resist the adverse effects of natural forces such as rain, heat, and wind. So they do not deteriorate due to natural forces.
Building stones are used in various places like pavements, floors, and aprons of bridges. At that place come abrasion forces due to the movement of vehicles and humans. So it is important to test the hardness.
The Toughness means their capacity to resist impact load which is developed due to vibration. So that is necessary to test the hardness of stones.
Specific gravity means it has high strength so higher specific gravity values should be used in a heavy structure. Such as the construction of dams, retaining walls, harbors, and docks. The range of specific gravity is 2.4 to 2.8.
Porosity and Absorption
The porosity of building stone depends upon the formation of the parent/ main rock. If the parent rock has a porous structure, then rainwater and groundwater can easily enter into that porous space and damage the structure and water absorption is directly proportional to the porosity. If stones are more porous then water absorption capacity is more.
Dressing means giving the required shape of the parent rock which is suitable/ needed for building construction. When dressing of parent rock is easy then the cost of the dressing is less.
In that case, when stones are used for facing works where appearance is a prime role. That place enhances the beauty of the stones by applying polish to them.
Seasoning of stones means the process of removing quarry sap. Lateritic types of stones should not be used after 6 to 12 months of quarrying. Because they allow ridding of quarry sap by the action of nature.
The stones are workable which means they are easy to cut, easy to dress, and give shapes are also easy.
Cost is an important factor when selecting a building material because the material cost is directly proportional to the cost of construction.
Building stones are free from a coefficient of thermal expansion. Such as iron oxides, calcium carbonate, and minerals.
In conclusion, stones and rocks are essential materials used in construction and various other applications.
There are several types of stones and rocks, each with unique properties that make them suitable for different purposes.
Natural stones, such as granite, marble, and limestone, are popular due to their beauty, durability, and strength. They are commonly used in flooring, countertops, and building facades.
Sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone and limestone, are also widely used in construction due to their availability and ease of use.
Igneous rocks, such as basalt and granite, are known for their strength and durability and are commonly used in paving, building foundations, and as decorative stones.
When selecting the right type of stone or rock for a project, it’s important to consider the specific requirements of the project and the properties of the available stones.
Factors such as durability, strength, weather resistance, and cost should be taken into account to ensure the project’s success.
Overall, stones and rocks are versatile and reliable materials, and selecting the right type of stone or rock can make a significant difference in the outcome of a construction project.
What is a Stone?
Stone is a natural building material. According to type, stones are used in buildings for foundation, roofing, flooring, masonry, paving, etc.
Which Types of Stones are used in Construction?
What is the requirement for good building stones?
Porosity and water absorption
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