What is Shoring

Shoring | What Is Shoring | Shoring In Construction | Types of Shoring | Shoring Methods | Raking Shoring9 min read

What Is Shoring?

Shoring is a temporary structure used to prevent the collapse of the main under-construction structure. It is generally required to stabilize the construction pit walls, prevent water from penetrating the pit, and secure neighboring buildings.

Shoring in Construction is essentially required to support a deep excavation to prevent the retained soil from overturns and eventually cause a project mishap. Its support requirement depends on the types of soil and when an excavation depth at least 1.20-meter difference in levels from ground level.

Shoring structures are completely different from retaining walls, as this is used only to retain the soil during the excavation. As per the structural designer, it is not used to only retain the soil. It is always essential to decide which type of shoring suitable construction project that we are engaged in at the early stage of design.

Building construction in an urban area with a high building density around requires special consideration.  Surrounding buildings and traffic structures need to be protected and often require extensive efforts regarding shoring and dewatering for the excavation of the new structure.

There is another important problem to decide the use the temporary measures also for the final building structure. It is essentially required if the massive and costly method like diaphragm walls is mandatory due to geotechnical demand. These types of walls can be used as permanent walls e.g. in subway stations or in basements of high-rise buildings.

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What Is Shoring In Construction?

Shoring is a temporary structure used to prevent the collapse of the main under-construction structure. The most commonly shoring support is required during the early stage of construction which is excavation.

Shoring Definition

Shoring is defined as Temporary support is constructed to support and improve the lateral strength of walls and structures during repairs called Shoring.


Types of Shoring

The most common types of shoring in construction are as follows,

  1. Berlin Walls
  2. Sheet Pile Walls
  3. Secant Pile Walls
  4. Diaphragm Walls

1. Sheet Piles Shoring

Sheet Piles Shoring
Sheet Piles Shoring

The application of sheet pile walls also depends on the drivability of the steel sections which will benefit from lighter soils (no boulders). This especially applies with regard to the verticality of the piles. The appearance of groundwater can be mastered by tightly welding the longitudinal joints between the sections.

Sheet pile walls are normally temporary measures that are pulled after completing the basement but can also be used as permanent structures, e.g. in marine key walls or bridge abutments.

  • Installation of sheet piles by vibrating or impact hammers.
  • Excavation of construction pit.
  • Welding of sheet pile.
  • Installation and tensioning of tiebacks.

2. Bored Pile Walls

There are different types of bored pile walls shoring,

  • Single bored pile walls
  • Contiguous bored pile walls
  • Secant bored pile walls

Depending on the geotechnical engineering requirements bored pile walls need to be back-anchored. Part of the final structure: secant bored pile walls (subway, Munich), single bored pile wall (slope retaining wall, Horrem)


a.  Secant Pile Shoring

Secant Piles pile are generally constructed by intersecting two combinations of piles, with a “reinforced”, also called secondary and “un-reinforced” or primary pile interlocking each other to form a continuous wall.

A guide bean is constructed before to keep the installation of piles in alignment in place.  Secant pile Shoring mainly used in deep excavations.

Secant Pile Shoring
Secant Pile Shoring

In this, after pouring concrete in the primary pile, a temporary casing is removed while concrete is not fully set. After that, the heavy casing is installed at the intervening pile location cutting into the fresh concrete of the adjacent pile.

As this process completed the secondary piles are immediately driven. The steel case of the second pile is then inserted and concrete is poured to form a continuous wall.

Secant Pies are best suited when there is not enough space for open excavation or when space is limited because of an existing structure that was too close in proximity. It is also used when a surcharge loads is considered due to the neighboring structure is considered in the design.

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4. Diaphragm Wall

  • Continuous wall
  • Very stiff shoring structures.
  • Requires heavy and high-investment equipment.
  • May become part of the permanent structure.
 Diaphragm Wall Shoring
Diaphragm Wall

A diaphragm wall is cast in situ reinforced concrete wall. The trench is prevented from collapsing during excavation, reinforcing and casting by the use of supporting bentonite slurry. The slurry of concrete forms thick layers on the wall of the trench which balances the inward hydraulic forces and prevents water flow into the trench. Slurry made of polymers can also be used.

The machines used for the construction of diaphragm walls are among the most developed and costly construction equipment using the following tools.

  • Trench cutters
  • Diaphragm wall grab

3. Contiguous Pile Shoring

Contiguous Pile Shoring
Contiguous Pile Shoring

Contiguous or Tangent Pile shoring are such types of piles that are closely spaced with faces of each pile touches another pile. Types of pile shoring are generally used where water is not significant or the water pressure is very minimal.  

Contiguous pile shoring mainly effective in clay soils and can use to retain dry granular material or fills. But, there are the chances of water seepage through gaps of piles when it is used in water-bearing granular soils.

It can be resolved by grouting these gaps to form a water-tight retaining wall. This shoring is not suitable to use in a high groundwater table without dewatering works.

Contiguous pile shoring construction is very similar to secant piles as prior to the installation, a guide beam should be constructed to serve as a guide for the contiguous wall to install in place.

Read More: Construction Joints & Types Of Joint In Concrete


Shoring Types of Shoring In Construction

Following are main four types of shoring,

  1. Raking Shoring
  2. Hydraulic Shoring
  3. Beam and Plate Shoring
  4. Soil Nailing Shoring

1. Raking Shoring

Raking Shoring
Raking Shore

Raking Shores is constructed by placing one or more timber beams to the face of the structure to be supported and the ground. Ranking shoring is more effective if the raker meets the wall at an angle of 60 to 70 degrees. The wall plates are generally used to increase the area of support.


2. Hydraulic Shoring

Hydraulic Shoring
Hydraulic Shoring

Hydraulic shoring is generally use hydraulic pistons which are pumped outward until they press up against the trench walls. This pistons are normally combined with steel plate or plywood, either being 1-1/8″ thick plywood, or special heavy fenland 7/8″ thick.


3. Beam and Plate Shoring

 Beam and Plate Shoring
Beam and Plate

Beam and Plate steel I-beams are first inserted in ground and then the steel plates are slid in amongst them. A similar method is utilized in the case of wood planks is called soldier boarding.

The hydraulic support used tends to be faster and easier; the other methods tend to be used for longer-term applications or larger excavations.


4. Soil Nailing Shoring

 Soil Nailing Shoring
Soil Nailing

Soil nailing is a method of shoring in which an excavation, soil slopes or retaining walls are strengthened by inserting reinforce elements in then like steel reinforcing bars. The hole in the soil is a pre-drilled hole and then grouted into place or drilled and grouted simultaneously.

These elements are generally inserted at a slight downward inclination which offers better protection against any drawdown action.


FAQ:

What Is Shoring In Construction?

Shoring is a temporary structure used to prevent the collapse of the main under-construction structure. It is generally required to stabilize the construction pit walls, prevent water from penetrating the pit, and secure neighboring buildings.

What Types of Shoring?

There are mainly four types of shoring.
1. Raking Shoring
2. Hydraulic Shoring
3. Beam and Plate Shoring
4. Soil Nailing Shoring

Shoring Methods

The most common methods of shoring in construction are:
1. Berlin Walls
2. Sheet Pile Walls
3. Secant Pile Walls
4. Diaphragm Walls

Why do we need shoring?

Shoring in Construction is essentially required to support a deep excavation to prevent the retained soil overturns and eventually cause a project mishap. Its support requirement depends on the types of soil and when an excavation depth at least 1.20-meter difference in levels from ground level.

Wall Shoring

A diaphragm wall is cast in situ reinforced concrete wall. The trench is prevented from collapsing during excavation, reinforcing and casting by the use of supporting bentonite slurry. The slurry of concrete forms thick layers on the wall of the trench which balances the inward hydraulic forces and prevents water flow into the trench. Slurry made of polymers can also be used.

Shoring

Shoring is a temporary structure used to prevent the collapse of the main under-construction structure. It is generally required to stabilize the construction pit walls, prevent water from penetrating the pit, and secure neighboring buildings.


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