What Is Shoring?
Shoring in construction refers to a temporary support system used to stabilize a building or structure during construction, repair, or demolition work.
The purpose of shoring is to prevent collapse and ensure the safety of workers and the public.
Shoring can be used in a variety of situations, including:
- Supporting walls or roofs that have been partially removed or damaged
- Holding up a building during excavation work
- Stabilizing structures during earthquakes or other natural disasters
There are several types of shoring systems, including:
- Timber shoring, which uses large wooden beams to support the structure
- Hydraulic shoring, which uses hydraulic jacks to apply pressure and support the structure
- Steel shoring, which uses steel beams, plates, and brackets to provide support
- Aluminum shoring, which is lightweight and easy to install, making it suitable for limited access areas
The design and installation of shoring systems is a complex process that requires the expertise of experienced engineers and contractors.
It is important to ensure that the shoring system is strong enough to withstand the weight of the structure and any external forces, such as wind or earthquakes.
In addition, shoring systems must be regularly inspected to ensure their stability and safety, and any necessary adjustments or repairs should be made as soon as possible.
Overall, shoring is a critical component of construction and demolition projects, as it helps ensure the safety of workers and the public, and protects the integrity of the structure being worked on.
Shoring structures are completely different from retaining walls, as these are used only to retain the soil during the excavation. As per the structural designer, it is not used to only retain the soil.
Building construction in an urban area with a high building density around requires special consideration. Surrounding buildings and traffic structures need to be protected and often require extensive efforts regarding shoring and dewatering for the excavation of the new structure.
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What Is Shoring In Construction?
Shoring is a temporary structure used to prevent the collapse of the main under-construction structure. The most common shoring support is required during the early stage of construction which is excavation.
Shoring is defined as Temporary support constructed to support and improve the lateral strength of walls and structures during repairs called Shoring.
Types of Shoring
The most common types of shoring used in construction are as follows,
- Berlin Walls
- Sheet Pile Walls
- Secant Pile Walls
- Diaphragm Walls
1. Sheet Piles Shoring
The application of sheet pile walls also depends on the drivability of the steel sections which will benefit from lighter soils (no boulders).
This especially applies with regard to the verticality of the piles. The appearance of groundwater can be mastered by tightly welding the longitudinal joints between the sections.
Sheet pile walls are normally temporary measures that are pulled after completing the basement but can also be used as permanent structures, e.g. in marine key walls or bridge abutments.
- Installation of sheet piles by vibrating or impact hammers.
- Excavation of construction pit.
- Welding of sheet pile.
- Installation and tensioning of tiebacks.
2. Bored Pile Walls
There are different types of bored pile wall shoring,
- Single bored pile walls
- Contiguous bored pile walls
- Secant bored pile walls
Depending on the geotechnical engineering requirements bored pile walls need to be back-anchored. Part of the final structure: secant bored pile walls (subway, Munich), single bored pile wall (slope retaining wall, Horrem)
a. Secant Pile Shoring
Secant Piles pile are generally constructed by intersecting two combinations of piles, with “reinforced”, also called secondary, and “un-reinforced” or primary piles interlocking each other to form a continuous wall.
A guide bean is constructed before to keep the installation of piles in alignment place. Secant pile Shoring is mainly used in deep excavations.
In this, after pouring concrete into the primary pile, a temporary casing is removed while the concrete is not fully set.
After that, the heavy casing is installed at the intervening pile location cutting into the fresh concrete of the adjacent pile.
As this process is completed the secondary piles are immediately driven. The steel case of the second pile is then inserted and concrete is poured to form a continuous wall.
Secant Pies are best suited when there is not enough space for open excavation or when space is limited because of an existing structure that was too close in proximity.
It is also used when a surcharge load is considered due to the neighboring structure being considered in the design.
4. Diaphragm Wall
- Continuous wall
- Very stiff shoring structures.
- Requires heavy and high-investment equipment.
- May become part of the permanent structure.
A diaphragm wall is cast in situ reinforced concrete wall. The trench is prevented from collapsing during excavation, reinforcing, and casting by the use of supporting bentonite slurry.
The slurry of concrete forms thick layers on the wall of the trench which balances the inward hydraulic forces and prevents water flow into the trench. Slurry made of polymers can also be used.
The machines used for the construction of diaphragm walls are among the most developed and costly construction equipment using the following tools.
- Trench cutters
- Diaphragm wall grab
3. Contiguous Pile Shoring
Contiguous or Tangent Pile shoring is such type of pile that is closely spaced with the faces of each pile that touches another pile.
Types of pile shoring are generally used where water is not significant or the water pressure is very minimal.
Contiguous pile shoring is mainly effective in clay soils and can use to retain dry granular material or fills. But, there are the chances of water seepage through gaps of piles when it is used in water-bearing granular soils.
It can be resolved by grouting these gaps to form a water-tight retaining wall. This shoring is not suitable to use in a high groundwater table without dewatering works.
Contiguous pile shoring construction is very similar to secant piles as prior to the installation, a guide beam should be constructed to serve as a guide for the contiguous wall to install in place.
Types of Shoring In Construction
Following are the main four types of shoring,
- Raking Shoring
- Hydraulic Shoring
- Beam and Plate Shoring
- Soil Nailing Shoring
1. Raking Shoring
Raking Shores are constructed by placing one or more timber beams on the face of the structure to be supported and the ground.
Ranking shoring is more effective if the racer meets the wall at an angle of 60 to 70 degrees. The wall plates are generally used to increase the area of support.
2. Hydraulic Shoring
Hydraulic shoring is generally used hydraulic pistons which are pumped outward until they press up against the trench walls. This piston is normally combined with steel plate or plywood, either being 1-1/8″ thick plywood, or special heavy fenland 7/8″ thick.
3. Beam and Plate Shoring
Beam and Plate steel I-beams are first inserted into the ground and then the steel plates are slid in amongst them. A similar method utilized in the case of wood planks is called soldier boarding.
The hydraulic support used tends to be faster and easier; the other methods tend to be used for longer-term applications or larger excavations.
4. Soil Nailing Shoring
Soil nailing is a method of shoring in which an excavation, soil slopes, or retaining walls are strengthened by inserting reinforced elements in them like steel reinforcing bars. The hole in the soil is a pre-drilled hole and then grouted into place or drilled and grouted simultaneously.
These elements are generally inserted at a slight downward inclination which offers better protection against any drawdown action.
In conclusion, shoring in construction is an essential temporary support system used to stabilize structures during construction, repair, or demolition work. The use of shoring helps prevent collapse and ensures the safety of workers and the public.
There are several types of shoring systems, each with its own strengths and limitations, and the design and installation of shoring systems should be performed by experienced engineers and contractors.
Regular inspections and maintenance of shoring systems are also necessary to ensure their stability and safety.
Ultimately, shoring is a critical component of construction and demolition projects, as it helps ensure the safety and integrity of structures during the building process.
What is shoring in construction?
Shoring is a temporary support system used in construction to provide stability to excavations, walls, or structures during the construction process. It prevents collapse, supports loads, and ensures the safety of workers and adjacent properties.
Who is responsible for designing and installing shoring systems?
Shoring systems are typically designed and installed by qualified structural engineers, geotechnical engineers, or shoring specialists. They assess site conditions, analyze loads and forces, and develop appropriate shoring designs that meet safety regulations and construction requirements.
Can shoring systems be adjusted or modified during construction?
Yes, shoring systems can be adjusted or modified during construction if necessary. Changes may be made to accommodate unexpected ground conditions, variations in loads, or modifications in the construction plan. However, any modifications should be done under the guidance of a qualified engineer and in compliance with safety regulations.
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