what is civil engineering

What is Civil Engineering | History, Scope & Top 25 Universities

Civil Engineering is all about providing easy living and safe shelter to humans. Its major work includes the planning, design, and construction of facilities that we require for everyday living, industry, and transport.

It provides a wide range of career opportunities with future challenges which can include the development of airports, offshore oil platforms, bridges, roads, railways, waste collection and treatment systems, and water supply systems.

Civil engineering roles also involve in solving environmental issues such as air pollution, coastal protection, and waste treatment.

Read More: Self Healing Concrete- A New Innovation In Civil Engineering


History of Civil Engineering:

  • It has been one of the important aspects of life since the beginning of human existence.
  • The civil construction evidence was found around  4000 and 2000 BC in Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) and Ancientigypt when humans started finding its existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
  • During this time, the need for travel and transportation from one place to another becomes important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing.
  • In Egypt, Pyramids were constructed around 2700-2500 BC, which is some of the first instances of large structure constructions.
  • The important ancient construction is the water management system unit which is 3000 years old and longer than 71 km, the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447-438 BC).
  • Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC) the Great Wall of China by General Meng T’ien under orders from Ch’in Emperor Shih T-Luang Ti (c. 920 BC)’ and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura.
  • The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae, harbors, bridges, dams, and roads.
  • In the 18th century, the word civil engineering used to describe all things civilian as opposed to military engineering. The john Smeaton was the first civil engineer who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse.
  • Smeaton and some of his cullies founded the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers and after in 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London.
  • This institution for civil engineering awarded as the Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognizing civil engineering as a profession.

Read More: Top 10 Civil Engineering Site Work


What Civil Engineers Do?

  • Civil engineers are the superior person in the construction of major public works projects such as buildings, highways, airports, bridges, and dams. Civil engineers can work for a government organization or in private industries competing for government contracts.
  • Civil engineering is a broad branch a civil engineer can undertake, many of them specialize in a type of project or branch of the profession such as transportation engineering, structural engineering, or geotechnical engineering.
  • They can work in the office and also go to project sites to monitor construction. Civil engineers are the main guiding and supervising authority on the construction site. He is responsible for checking work on-site is going according to plan and answers any questions construction superintendents raise.
  • A civil engineer has to submit a report of project work to governing boards and the general public. They have to write a letter, document for the project like responses to requests for proposals, status updates, and technical reports.

Scope of Civil Engineering: Areas of Study:

Civil engineering is a broad branch of engineering, it includes the study of the concept of design, constructs and maintains infrastructure systems and projects. Civil engineering has various branches, increasing the scope of civil engineering.

A bachelor’s degree in civil engineering prepares an individual to work with the construction industry as well as in managing the business and finance section. Below is a list of main branches in the study of civil engineering:


1) The Building, Planning, and Construction:

what is civil engineering
Building Construction

In this area of study, students are taught the methods by which constructional projects are built according to the plans and specifications. Out of all the structures, construction of a building such as residential, schools, colleges, hospitals, government offices, industrial towers, etc. is of prime importance because of the increasing population and growth of any country. 


2) Advanced Construction:

This involves advance planning and techniques for the design and construction of bigger projects like bridges, tunnels, dams, ports, power stations, etc, to ensure their stability and durability. A detailed study of this subject widens the scope of civil engineering in construction.


3) Structural Engineering:

Structural analysis and designing of slabs, columns, beams, etc for constructional projects which require calculation and the use of advanced computing software fall under the category of structural engineering.


4) Town Planning:

What is Civil Engineering | History, Scope & Top 25 Universities
Town Planning

Town Planning is an essential concept of dividing a town into different land use zones such as residential, commercial, recreational and industrial zones to ensure a better environment for the people of the town. 


5) Geotechnical Engineering:

what is civil engineering
Geotechnical Engineering

It is the field of civil engineering which deals with the collection and testing of soil samples. Geotechnical engineers design and construct well foundations, pile foundations, cofferdams, tunnels, caissons, and earth-related constructions. 


6) Water Resources Engineering:

what is civil engineering
Water Resource Engineering

Water Resource Engineering includes designing hydraulic structures like canals, barrages, dams, hydropower stations, pipe networks, etc to measure, utilize and develop water resources for municipal, agriculture and power generation purpose. It also includes water harvesting techniques, watershed planning, soil conversation, etc.


7) Environmental Engineering:

Due to increased human activities, it is very important to safeguard the natural world. This field deals with public health engineering and pollution control through the construction of a sewerage system, water distribution plant and also solid waste management.

Read More: Types Of Buildings In Civil Engineering


Degree Courses in Civil Engineering:

Following are degree courses in civil engineering

  1. B.Sc. or Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
  2. B.E. Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering
  3. B.E. (Hons.) in Civil Engineering
  4. B.Tech. or Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering
  5. M.Sc./M.S. or Master of Science in Civil Engineering
  6. M.E. or Master of Civil Engineering
  7. M.Tech. or Master of Technology in Civil Engg.
  8. M.Phil. or Master of Philosophy in Civil Engg.
  9. Ph.D. or Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engg.

Diploma Courses in Civil Engineering:

  1. Diploma in Civil Engg.
  2. Advance Diploma in Civil Engg.
  3. Post Graduate Diploma in Civil Engg.

Certificate Courses in Civil Engineering:

  • Construction Engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • Transportation Engineering
  • Municipal or Urban Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Water Resources Engineering
  • Coastal Engineering
  • Surveying
  • Material Engineering

Read More: Thumb Rules For Civil Engineers


Watch Video: Best Career Options After Civil Engineering 


Scope of Civil Engineering: Top Universities/Colleges

An individual needs skill and hard work to be a civil engineer. Getting an opportunity to study in a good university offers the unique experience of not just boosting your educational qualifications but also equips you with the skills necessary to meet the challenges of the industry.

What is Civil Engineering | History, Scope & Top 25 Universities
Lancaster University Lancaster Medical School Celebratory Reception 2017

Below is a list of the top universities that offer a degree in this course thus increasing the scope of civil engineering? 

  • University of Oxford
  • Stanford University
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • California Institute of Technology
  • Princeton University
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
  • Imperial College London
  • ETH Zurich
  • Johns Hopkins University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Columbia University
  • University of California, Los Angeles
  • Cornell University
  • University of Michigan
  • University of Toronto
  • Tsinghua University
  • Northwestern University
  • National University of Singapore
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Northwestern University
  • New York University
  • University of Washington
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Melbourne

Scope of Civil Engg: Job Outlook

Let us look at some of the job opportunities for professionals in this field:

  • Construction Managers
  • Civil Engineering Technicians
  • Architects
  • Assistant Engineer
  • Project Manager
  • Senior Engineer
  • Chief Engineer
  • City Engineer
  • Division Leader and Head
  • Deputy Engineer
  • Surveyors
  • Director of Public Work
  • Urban and Regional Planners
  • Environmental Engineers
  • Professor and Teachers
  • Researcher
  • Consultants
  • Entrepreneurs

Civil Engineers Salary in Different Countries:

What is Civil Engineering | History, Scope & Top 25 Universities

1) Switzerland:

Average annual salary: $ 77, 438

2) Denmark:

The average annual salary happens to be: $ 72,565

3) Norway:

Average annual salary: $ 67,154

4) U.S.:

Average annual salary: $ 62, 019

5) Australia:

Average annual salary: $ 54,155

6) Canada

The average annual salary in US dollars:  $47,262

7) Germany

The average annual salary in US dollars:  $44,803

8) France

The average annual salary in US dollars:  $42,2117

9) United Kingdom

The average annual salary in US dollars:  $40,692

10) Netherlands

The average annual salary in US dollars:  $40,612


Future of Civil Engineering:

Brother, always remember thereof a civil engineer is never going to end in there.

See civil engineers are required at each n every step of the of humans like from home to office, college, school, ground through roads n Streets. Hence u can see here there is Engineers everywhere.

Every month damaged roads buildings streets dams many more structures are constructed repaired Brocken new construction has been carried out. So u can think there’s a beautiful and heavy demand for civil engineers every time.


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