What Is Construction Site Preparation?
Site preparation involves various activities like demolition of old existing construction, clearing of building sites, underground service, and wire mapping, site surveying, and layout and anti-termite treatment before starting construction work. Sometimes, construction site preparation requires blasting, test drilling, landfill, leveling, earth-moving, excavating, land drainage, and other land preparation
Construction Site Preparation work is essential for any project. It is important to prepare a construction site before the main construction activities started.
The Construction site may have lots of obstructions like old buildings or structures, big trees, sloping ground, loose soil, underground services. This may create problems during construction work. Therefore before starting any site preparation for construction is a must for the smooth running of construction projects.
Construction Site Preparation Steps
Following are the Steps in Site Preparation for Construction Projects
- Soil Testing and Report Analysis
- Demolition of Old Structure
- Underground Service and Wire Mapping
- Site Surveying and Layout
- Site Clearing
- Site Excavation and Earthwork
- Compaction of Construction Project Site
- Anti-Termite Treatment
- Start Construction Work
Read More: 15+ Types Of Drawings In Construction
1. Soil Testing and Reports Analysis
Soil testing is essential before planning and designs any construction project. Without knowing the properties of soil we cannot design any structure.
Soil geotechnical investing is carried out to know the properties of soil, types of soil, and its load-bearing capacity. So, the structural designers can decide whether soil requires any strengthening treatment or not.
Soil testing reports various different details like type of foundation appropriate for the site, settlements and related recommendations, liquefaction possibilities, slope stability, groundwater level, soil bearing capacity, excavation-related hazards, soil strength, soil classification, and many more information are provided in the geotechnical reports.
This soil investing provides valuable information about the properties of soil and its behavior in the future. If the construction site near an earthquake-prone area, then necessary testing and recommendation should be included in the geotechnical report.
2. Demolition of Old Structure
The demolition of the old structure is important in construction site preparation work. If there is any old structure then prepare a plan to demolish it with the help of the demolition team. Demolition must include,
- Which structure on-site needs to be demolished?
- What are structures on-site which requires repairs, not demolition?
If the structure is required partly demolition, you should make sure the remaining part of the structure remains safe as per building rules and regulations.
For example, if any part of the building is needs cracking then the necessary care should take to support other structures connected with it. In this stage, the presence structural engineer or any other competent professional might be necessary to monitor any movement or cracking.
Without a doubt, Systematic planning and work will help determine methods and procedures in order to identify hazards, ensure safe disposal of materials, and complying with legislation requirements.
As demolition of structure, you may also need an asbestos clearance certificate.
3. Underground Service and Wire Mapping
While doing construction site preparation work and excavating in urban areas, near to telecom service, or near to railway line care should be taking no service line or underground wire break and disturbed due to work.
Therefore, as a precautionary measure, you should conduct an advance survey of underground assets or wire running below the ground before starting any construction excavation.
Write a letter to the telecom department, natural gas supply department, and the electrical department to aware them of your work area. This department receives your letter and verifies if there service assets running underground in your workplace.
If they found any wire below your work area they will shift wire from that location to any other so that no damage will happen due to work on site.
4. Site Surveying and Layout
Now, it is time to layout the building plan and fixing the exact position of the building. With the help of survey pegs or physical markers, a surveyor will locate the boundaries of the new building.
A land surveyor will the position of pegs on a construction site, are further complemented with engineering and informational surveys.
Other engineering surveys will assure that the building structure is built in the proper place and as designed, while the second one helps to obtain data concerning topography, drainage, and man-made features of the area.
A site layout plan is essential to have all of the important data at hand: where the new building will be located, access roads for construction vehicles, storage areas for supplies, the locations for drainage systems, etc.
Having the site set out at hand, you now know which area needs to be cleared of vegetation and rocks.
5. Site Clearing
Construction site preparation work involves removing any underground wood, underbrush, trees, and rocks to a distance of approximately three meters from the building zone. Topsoil quality is not good for structure, then removes it and replaces it with a suitable type of soil. The site should clear such it looks flat and clear without any undulation.
6. Site Excavation and Earthwork
As the layout of the building plan is transferred on the ground, the excavation work begins and the soil is removed to a required depth in which the foundation of the structure is placed.
There are different types of machinery used to excavate and transport soil at the project site. The type of machinery used for excavation is based on the soil type, how long are the distance the soil needs to be transported, soil site ability to carry the load, and site accessibility.
In case hard soil like rock is available on the construction site blasting, drilling, and machinery like boulders, backhoe, shovels, and scooper are involved to excavate and transported blasted and drilled materials when rocks are present at the site.
7. Compaction of Construction Project Site
The soil at the base of the foundation must be compacted to the required degree which as per the IBC Code is 90% of maximum dry density. Compaction of soil at the base of the foundation is essential because it decreases settlement and consequently prevents undesired incidents.
For compaction of soil there are different methods are utilized ad tamping, rolling, and vibration are. There is various machinery available in construction sites such as smooth wheel roller, sheep foot roller, rubber tire, crawler, and tamping plate compactor.
Compaction of soil as the base of the foundation not only improves the shear strength but also declines soil permeability and compressibility. Compaction of soil is important while doing construction site preparation.
8. Anti-Termite Treatment
Anti-Termite treatment is essential for building constriction. Termite may eat timber items and another material contains cellulose as their principal food is timber. Termites are able to infiltrate into wall cavities, cracks in concrete slabs, and voids in walls or floors.
Check details of nearby site to justify the need of termite risk management is needed in your site.
9. Start Construction Work:
After all the task works of construction site preparation, we can now proceed to start our main construction activities. Site preparation is an essential task needed specialist skills to be carried out safely and appropriately.
With well construction site preparation work ensure uninterrupted working conditions for future construction work.
Construction Site Preparation Checklist
Careful construction site preparation will allow construction to proceed smoothly and efficiently with the least amount of confusion, disruption, or delays.
- For everyone’s safety, please inform your family and guests to enter the construction area cautiously and only when necessary.
- Always keep pets and kids away construction area and materials and tools.
- Contact your homeowners’ insurance agent and follow their recommendations for updating your policy to include your remodeling project.
- Inform your Production Supervisor how to use security system and turn on/off sprinkler system, if necessary.
- Move all furnishings and accessories from the construction area. Clear all walls, shelves, cabinets and counters and secure any items that have sentimental value or are irreplaceable.
- Provide clear access to the construction area and to secondary construction areas such as electrical service, ductwork, plumbing, etc.
- Always try to clear outside area clear and adequate room for construction activities, as well as access for storage of materials and equipment. This may also include your garage and driveway.
- Remove any shrubbery, flowers, etc. that you want to save and replant.
- Identify and clearly label any salvageable items you wish to retain.
- We take precautionary measures to confine dust and debris, but since air is moving throughout your home, it is impossible to totally contain dust. You should:
- Cover or remove furnishings and other possessions from the construction area to protect against dust or other damage.
- Always close doors to other rooms and vacuum often to help control dust from spreading.
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