Construction drawings are an important part of any construction project, providing a practical representation of the building design, construction, and specifications.
They serve as a communication tool between the contractor, design team members, and other stakeholders involved in the construction project process.
There are different types of construction drawings, each has a specific purpose and provides vital information to ensure that the construction project is executed according to the construction plan.
A study of the different types of construction drawings is a very important aspect for any construction professional to ensure successful project delivery.
List of important types of construction drawings used in any project
- Site Layout Plan
- Floor Plan
- Sectional Drawing
- Structural Drawings
- Working Drawings
- Foundation Plan
- Column Layout Drawings
- Plinth Beam Layout Drawings
- Flooring Details Drawings
- Doors & Windows Frame Details
- Sill and Lintel Level Drawings
- Column, Beam and Slab Reinforcement Details
- Staircase Layout and Reinforcement Details
- Plumbing Layout Drawings
- Electrical Layout Drawings
- Finishing Drawings
Types of Construction Drawings
The various types of construction drawings and their uses in building construction projects
1. Site Layout Plan
A site plan is a larger scaled drawing or plan of the proposed building construction site. It includes each and every existing structure detail along with its size and shape. A site plan also is known as a site layout plan which shows the layout of site components.
With the help of a site plan architect or planning get an idea about existing features of the site and plan accordingly and also take the decision of demolition, if it is required.
The site plan is also important to find the location of any structure on a big construction site. These types of drawing in construction are prepared first before planning the building.
The following details must include in the site plan,
- Site boundary and details of surrounding properties or structures.
- The position or location of the building with respect to its surroundings.
- Location details of tree protection orders, and the main elements of the landscape.
- Parking area location or capacities, traffic flows, and signage.
- Existing roads, footpaths, ramps, paved areas, and so on.
2. Floor Plan
The floor plan is one of the most important types of construction drawings. The floor plan is a two-dimensional drawing that shows the position of different components of the room with their dimension.
The floor plan is very important for a site engineer. Sometimes, the floor plan also shoes furniture, appliances, or anything kept in the room. But it is not an essential feature of a floor plan. It only gives a general idea about how the room will look with the furniture added.
3. Sectional Drawing
Section drawing is the same line elevation of the building but it is cut in a vertical plane inside the building plan. Moreover, it represents the building details when it is cut vertically inside the building. For example, if an apple is cut in two pieces how its inside shape looks is a sectional shape or drawing of an apple.
Similarly, sectional drawing is important to get details of the inside component. Generally, the floor plan shows only two dimensions lengths and widths than about the height of the component. So, it is visible in the sectional drawing of the building.
4. Structural Drawings
A structural drawing is a plan or set of plans for how a building or other structure will be built. It is generally prepared by registered professional structural engineers and informed by architectural drawings.
Structural drawing is mainly concerned with the load-carrying members of a structure. They provide the details of the size and types of materials to be used, as well as the general demands for connections.
The structure drawing never gives an architectural detail like surface finishes, partition walls, or mechanical systems. The structural drawings directly deal with the design of the building’s structure for the building authority to review.
Structural drawings also include contract documents, which guide contractors in detailing, fabricating, and installing parts of the structure.
5. Working Drawings
A working drawing is a drawing that is required to execute work on any construction. These are the main guides to site engineers to construct the building according to design.
There are different types of working drawing used on construction sites like floor plans with dimensions, foundation plans, details of flooring, etc.,
6. Foundation Layout Plan
The Foundation layout plan is the most important type of construction drawing. It is a plan having details of the foundation of the building. The foundation plan includes the following details,
- Types of foundation to be construction
- Size and shape of the foundation
- Dimension and distance between each other
- Centreline of building and component
- Details of PCC and excavation work.
7. Column Layout Plan or Drawings
The column layout plan is the plan which includes the details of column size, shape, and location with dimension. It is an essential drawing or plan for any building construction without a column layout plan initial structure cannot be constructed.
This plan shows the column with their identification numbers like C1 or C2. This layout plan helps site engineers to locate and construct columns on site.
8. Plinth Beam Layout Drawings
It is a type of drawing in construction in which the Plinth beam layout plan or drawing shows the details of the plinth beam position, layout, size, and reinforcement details.
It is an important drawing while preparing the layout of the formwork for the plinth beam.
9. Flooring Details Drawings
The flooring plan in building construction shows the details of flooring size, thickness, types of material, and types of flooring to be used. It also shows the details of the flooring base material details.
10. Doors & Windows Frame Details Plan
These are types of transportation of which the plan shows the position of the door and windows in the wall.
It indicates the location, height of windows, and frame position while fixing the door and window. It also includes the schedule of opening doors and windows.
11. Sill and Lintel Level Drawings:
These drawings show the sectional view of the wall with sill and lintel level. It includes the details of length, width, and thickness of the lintel on the wall. It is an important type of drawing used in building construction.
12. Column, Beam, and Slab Reinforcement Details
It is an important and essential drawing while constructing columns, beams, and slabs. This drawing shows the reinforcement, cover, and formwork details.
It helps the site engineer to interpret the diameter of steel and the spacing of steel reinforcement to be used while constructing columns, beams, and foundations.
It also shows the center-to-center distance between the column and beam which helps with the proper positioning of structural components.
Read More: Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
13. Staircase Layout and Reinforcement Details
It shows the details of the stair layout with standard dimensions. It includes the details of stair length, width, size of landing, number of risers, number of treads, etc.
It is an important drawing while constructing stairs. The staircase plan and section show the details of reinforcement, angle to stair flight, and cover to be used.
14. Plumbing Layout Drawings
It is an important type of construction drawing. Plumbing work is related to the water supply system in the house.
It includes the layout plan of different types running the house to supply water to various rooms of the house.
The plumbing plan includes the following,
- Size of pile
- Material of pile
- Position of sanitary fitting
- Outlet point location
15. Electrical Layout Drawings:
It is a graphical representation of the exact location of various electrical fixtures like switchboards, light points, fan points, and ceiling points with a wiring diagram.
An electrical engineer can read this layout plan and calculate the material required for the electrification of the building.
Types of Electrical Layout drawings,
- Lighting Layout
- Switchgear layout
- Generator and other equipment layout
- Earthing Layout
- Lightning protection system layout
- Cable Layout
- Conduit layout
- Cable tray layout
- Area classification Layout – Hazardous Ares
16. Finishing Drawings
Finishing drawings show the final finish details of each component such as flooring pattern, painting color, false ceiling shape, plastering texture, and elevation design.
In construction, the types of construction drawings used in building construction is essential tools which provide precise and detailed information for the successful execution of a construction project.
This drawing serve as a common language between architects, contractors, engineers and other professionals involved in the construction process.
Architectural drawing such as floor plans, elevation and section it conveys the design intent, spatial arrangement and overall aesthetics of the building, structural drawings focus on the framework and load bearing elements, ensuring the structural integrity and safety of the structure.
Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) Drawings detail the installation and layout of system including HVAC, Electrical, Plumbing and Fire Protection.
Other types of construction drawing, such as site plans, landscaping drawing and interior design drawing, and it provide additional information to guide the construction and enhance the functionality and aesthetics of the building.
This drawing is created using computer aided design (CAD) software, enabling precise measurement, annotations and three dimensional representations for better visualization.
By utilizing the various types of construction drawing professionals can collaborate effectively, anticipate challenges and it make informed decision and streamline the construction process.
In summary construction drawing play a vital role in the building construction process, providing a visual and technical roadmap for the realization of architectural. Structural and MEP designs.
The use of this drawing fosters clear communication, coordination and efficient execution, resulting in well-built software which meet the desired specification, standards and client expectation.
What are construction drawings?
Construction drawings, also known as blueprints or plans, are detailed visual representations of a building project. They provide precise information about the design, dimensions, materials, and specifications required for construction.
What is the purpose of construction drawings?
Construction drawings serve as a communication tool between architects, engineers, contractors, and other stakeholders involved in the construction process. They provide a comprehensive guide for builders to accurately execute the design and ensure the project meets the desired specifications.
What do structural drawings include?
Structural drawings provide details about the structural elements of the building, such as beams, columns, foundations, and load-bearing walls. They ensure the structural integrity and stability of the building.
What do plumbing drawings include?
Plumbing drawings depict the layout and connections of the plumbing systems, including pipes, fixtures, drains, and vents. They ensure proper water supply, waste management, and drainage within the building.
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