Construction drawings provide a guideline for the development of a building. There are not standard drawings list that can be used on construction site. It depends on the types of construction and building the drawing are prepared and issued on site.
Drawings are essential documents on any construction project site. Without a detailed drawing of different building components, no work can be done on-site. There are Different Types of Construction Drawings in construction serve as the guide to the site engineer in charge and give detailed information like size, dimensions, material, and location of a component of the structure.
Following are the construction drawings used in any project
- Site Layout Plan
- Floor Plan
- Sectional Drawing
- Structural Drawings
- Working Drawings
- Foundation Plan
- Column Layout Drawings
- Plinth Beam Layout Drawings
- Flooring Details Drawings
- Doors & Windows Frame Details
- Sill and Lintel Level Drawings
- Column, Beam and Slab Reinforcement Details
- Staircase Layout and Reinforcement Details
- Plumbing Layout Drawings
- Electrical Layout Drawings
- Finishing Drawings
Types of Construction Drawings
The follwoing are important drawings used on construction site
1) Site Layout Plan
A site plan is a larger scaled drawing or plan of the proposed building construction site. It includes each and every existing structure detail along with its size and shape. A site plan also is known as a site layout plan which shows the layout of site components.
With the help of site plan architect or planning get an idea about existing features of the site and plan accordingly and also take the decision of demolition, if it is required.
The site plan is also important to find the location of any structure on a big construction site. These types of drawing in construction are prepared first before planning the building.
Following details must include in site plan,
- Site boundary and details of surrounding properties or structures.
- The position or location of the building with respect to its surroundings.
- Location details of tree protection orders, and the main elements of the landscape.
- Parking area location or capacities, traffic flows, and signage.
- Existing roads, footpaths, ramps, paved areas, and so on.
2) Floor Plan
The floor plan is one of the most important types of construction drawings. The floor plan is a two-dimensional drawing that shows the position of different components of the room with their dimension. It included the location & position of the drawing-room, living room, kitchen, bedroom, staircase, bath, W.C., etc.
The floor plan is very important for a site engineer. Sometimes, the floor plan also shoes furniture, appliances, or anything kept in the room. But it is not an essential feature of a floor plan. It only gives a general idea about how the room will look like with furniture added.
3) Sectional Drawing
Section drawing is the same line elevation of the building but it is cut in a vertical plan inside the building plan. Moreover, it represents the building details when it is cut vertically inside the building. For example, if an apple cut in two pieces how its inside shape looks it is a sectional shape or drawing of an apple.
Similarly, sectional drawing is important to get details of the inside component. Generally, the floor plan shows only two dimension lengths and width than about the height of the component? So, it is visible in the sectional drawing of the building.
4) Structural Drawings
A structural drawing, one of the essential types of construction drawings, is a plan or set of plans for how a building or other structure will be built. It is generally prepared by registered professional structural engineers and informed by architectural drawings.
Structural drawing mainly concerned with the load-carrying members of a structure. They provide the details of the size and types of materials to be used, as well as the general demands for connections.
The structure drawing never gives an architectural detail like surface finishes, partition walls, or mechanical systems. The structural drawings directly deal with the design of the building’s structure to the building authority to review. Structural drawings also include contract documents, which guide contractors in detailing, fabricating, and installing parts of the structure.
5) Working Drawings
A working drawing is those drawing which are required to execute work on any construction. These are the main guides to site engineers to construct the building according to design. There are different types of working drawing used on construction site like floor plan with dimensions, foundation plan, details of flooring, etc.,
6) Foundation Layout Plan
The Foundation layout plan is the most important type of construction drawings. It is a plan having details of the foundation of the building. The foundation plan includes the following details,
- Types of foundation to be construction
- Size and shape of the foundation
- Dimension and distance between each other
- Centreline of building and component
- Details of PCC and excavation work.
7) Column Layout Plan or Drawings
The column layout plan is the plan which includes the details of column size, shape, and location with dimension. It is an essential drawing or plan for any building construction without a column layout plan initial structure cannot be constructed. This plan shows the column with their identification numbers like C1 or C2. This layout plan helps site engineers to location and construction columns on site.
8) Plinth Beam Layout Drawings:
It is a type of drawings in construction in which the Plinth beam layout plan or drawing shows the details of the plinth beam position, layout, size, and reinforcement details. It is an important drawing while preparing the layout of the formwork for the plinth beam.
9) Flooring Details Drawings:
The flooring plan in building construction shows the details of flooring size, thickness, types of material, and types of flooring to be used. It also shows the details of flooring base material details.
10) Doors & Windows Frame Details Plan:
These are types of transportation of which the plan shows the position of the door and windows in the wall. It indicates the location, height of windows, frame position while fixing the door and window. It also includes the schedule of opening for doors and windows.
11) Sill and Lintel Level Drawings:
These drawings show the sectional view of the wall with sill and lintel level. It includes the details of length, width, and thickness of the lintel on the wall. It is an important type of drawing used in building construction.
12) Column, Beam and Slab Reinforcement Details:
It is an important and essential drawing while construction column, beam, and slab. This drawing shows the reinforcement, cover, and formwork details. It helps the site engineer to interpret the diameter of steel and spacing of steel reinforcement to be used while construction column, beam, and foundation.
It also shows the center-to-center distance between column and beam which helps for proper positioning of structural components. These are important types of construction drawings of any work.
Read More: Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
13) Staircase Layout and Reinforcement Details:
It shows the details of the stair layout with standard dimensions. It includes the details of stair length, width, size of landing, number of risers, number of treads, etc. It is an important drawing while constructing stairs. Staircase plan and section shoes the details of reinforcement, angle to stair flight, and cover to be used.
14) Plumbing Layout Drawings:
It is an important types of construction drawings. Plumbing work is related to the water supply system in the house. It includes the layout plan of different types running the house to supply water to various rooms of the house.
Plumbing plan includes following,
- Size of pile
- Material of pile
- Position of sanitary fitting
- Outlet point location
Types of construction drawings
15) Electrical Layout Drawings:
It is a graphical representation of the exact location of various electrical fixtures like switch board, light point, fan point, ceiling point with wiring diagram. An electrical engineer can read this layout plan and calculate the material required for the electrification of the building.
Types of Electrical Layout drawings,
- Lighting Layout
- Switchgear layout
- Generator and another equipment layout
- Earthing Layout
- Lightning protection system layout
- Cable Layout
- Conduit layout
- Cable tray layout
- Area classification Layout – Hazardous Ares
16) Finishing Drawings:
Finishing drawings show the final finish details of each component such as flooring pattern, painting color, false ceiling shape, plastering texture and elevation design.
Construction Drawings are prepared as per the requirement and importance of project work.
In the case of small work, numbers of technical drawings are limited, but on the other hand as the project size increase, the details drawing are essential. More details and drawings increase work accuracy and reduce mistakes.
Watch Video: How to Read Construction Drawings
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