Building construction is not an easy task; perhaps it requires lots of afford and investment. Although, for building construction requires lots of time and it is tedious work, yet its result is a permanent asset for us. Therefore, care should be taken in building construction process. Before planning, building construction project must consider important aspect like the purpose of construction, utility, financial proficiency, the demand for work, etc.
As the decision of building construction taken, the planning phase is started. First of all start with some preconstruction steps.
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1) To acquire land or plot:
It is the most important step in building construction. Search for the location for the building which is best suited for building construction purpose. Be careful while selecting land which has all the desired facilities available nearby and should be free from all land-related issues. It is suggested that do prior data collection before buying land or plot either by doing research online or seek help from real estate agents or concerned persons regarding the effective cost of the same.
2) To seek technical help:
After selecting proper land for building, take help of a professional architect to create building designs and take his/her advice. An architect prepare plan as per building requirement, number of flats, shops based on your requirements and budget. Then after architect consult with a structural engineer for details of the reinforcements to be used, how deep your foundation will be, the size of gravel to be used, pillar width, etc.
3) Preparing Estimate and Budget:
Building construction involves a huge amount of material and budget. After, planning and structural detailing completed these details are transferred to building estimator. Building estimator will estimate the material quantity, quantity of different items of work, and prepare an abstract sheet which shows the cost of building construction. If financial resources are limited, we need to seek pre-approval for loans in advance or else you may end up in a cash crunch situation.
4) Permission from Authorities:
This is important work to do after the project is ready to be executed. For that, we have to take permission from the local municipal body before you could go for the construction.
Following are the list of document project required before applying for permission. This document may differ from state to state, but some are essential for every building construction work.
a) Land survey: Survey of the land has to be carried out with the help of authorized land surveyor
b) Soil test report of the land.
c) Land documents.
d) Architecture/ elevation/ sectional drawings.
e) Structural report.
f) Architect Certificate of undertaking on Record and Certificate of the undertaking of Civil Engineer on Record
5) Approach a Builder:
A builder or contractor for construction must be chosen carefully because it is a major factor for securing building construction quality and timely construction of work. Pre investigation must be done about the builder before handing work. In the contract document, all the work-related details must be clearly stated. The contract document should cover layout and work details along with the payment methods, time scales and costs. Condition of the contract should be thoroughly checked before signing a final deal.
Building Construction Phase:
1) Site preparation or leveling:
The construction site must be cleaned before the work is executed. This work involves the removal of roots of trees, debris and leveling ground area.
2) Excavation and PCC:
For the foundation of building ground is excavated with the help of excavating machines as per building dimension specified in drawings. In this foundation trench, a layer of PCC (Plain cement concrete) is laid in the dug portion before placing the reinforcements for the foundation.
The building is supported on the foundation is the lowermost part of the building that is in contact with the soil. A building is load transferred from the superstructure to the soil and needs to be extremely strong to handle the load. After the PCC work foundation reinforcement work is started. The foundation bottom level must check before concreting it. Remaining space between foundation is filled with earth.
4) Plinth beam and slab:
After the foundation work is done ground beam formwork preparation is started and poured with concrete. Over plinth beam, masonry work is started. And space between foundation and plinth beam filled with soil.
5) Superstructure – Column:
The superstructure is the portion above the plinth level of the building. The main component of the superstructure is column and beam. The columns are built up to slab level and the frame for further construction is prepared.
As column and beam framework completed masonry work is started with different materials such as bricks, concrete blocks, fly ash bricks, etc. according to building drawing. Masonry work is done using cement mortar mix. It is a mixture of cement & sand. During this carefully and as per drawing gaps are laid for doors and windows during the masonry work.
7) The lintel over door window gaps:
The lintel is constructed on door and window to support the masonry work over it. After this further masonry work is done.
8) Floor slab or Roof structure:
Then the formwork is started to construct slab resting on the column and beam. Over slab formwork, slab reinforcement is placed as per slab detailed drawing.
9) Door window framing and fixations:
After that door window frames are fixed at their specified position given in drawing.
10) Electrical and Plumbing:
As we know that buildings are constructed with a clean finish in which electrical and plumbing work is not visible. They are installed in the walls and slabs such that they are concealed and not visible after the finishing work is done. The point and pipe end left out such that later they can be finished with the electric fitting and plumbing fixtures.
11) Exterior finishing:
Once this work is completed, external plastering and finishing work is started. Waterproofing is also done to prevent rising dampness in the wall. External cladding can also be done to enhance the elevation of the house.
12) Terrace and roof finishing:
On top of the slab, waterproofing is done to prevent any leakage in the slab. Generally, terrazzo tiling is done to prevent the slab from a weathering effect.
13) Internal finishing:
Internal walls are plaster with smooth finish and flooring is done with tiles. Later on, the walls are painted or textured.
14) Woodwork and Fixture fittings:
By following the above step, almost construction work is completed and then after furniture work is started. Side by side, electrical fitting, switchboard, and plumbing fittings are complete in the bathrooms and kitchen areas too.
The last step of building construction is interior decoration work in completing the building construction with proper furnishing and fabric used.