Construction tools play an important role in any construction work as they provide a good finish and ease of work by reducing man work. There are different types of construction tools and equipment used in construction.
Building tools have their influence from ancient times to this period. Only the tools were used for scraping, cutting, chopping, hammering & moving in ancient times. But as development is being done in this time, there are very new construction tools, which work very well & very few people have requirements.
This article gives details about some basic construction equipment list with uses,
Construction Tools List for Building Construction
Some important 75 construction tools and their uses are listed below:
- Measurement Tape
- Concrete Mixer
- Sand screening machine
- Rubber Boots
- Bump Cutter/Screed
- Wooden Float/wooden rendering float
- Plumb Bob
- Wheel Barrow
- Head Pan
- Line Level
- Framing Square
- Crow Bar
- Framing Hammer
- Torpedo Level
- Cordless Drill
- Safety Glass
- Block Plane / Jack Plane
- Measuring Box
- Tile Cutter
- Earth Rammer
- Vacuum Blower
- Flat Pry Bar
- Digging bar
- Hand Saw
- Measuring Wheel
- Circular Saw
- Putty Knife
- Boning rod
- Brick hammer
- Binding Hook
- Bump Cutter / Screed
- Core Cutter Machine
- De-Watering Pump
- Drilling Machine
- End Frames
- Hand Drill
- Hand Vibrator
- Hydra Crane
- Jack Hammer
- Line and Pins
- Mixer Machine
- Pick Axe
- Pile Driller Machine
- Plumb Rule
- Wier Brush
- Rebound Hammer
- Road Header Machine
- Road Roller
- Safety Belt
- Skid Steer Loaders
- Sprit Level
- Straight Edge Brushes
- Tower Crane
- Trenchers Cutter
- Water Level
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1. Measurement Tape
Measuring tapes are the most common construction tool made of ribbon of cloth, fiberglass, or metal with proper linear-measurement markings for easy handling.
Measuring tapes are utilized to measure distance, either short or long. The engineer’s tape is designed to measure vast distances & it can more efficiently be carried in our toolkit or pocket.
A hand tool utilized for smoothing, digging, applying, or moving mortar or concrete is a trowel.
Trowels construction tools are categorized into the following types and subtypes;
I) Brick-laying Trowels
- London trowel
- Philadelphia trowel
II) Masonry Trowels
- Pointing trowel
- Gauging trowel
- Margin trowel
III) Finishing Trowels
- Pool trowel
- Margin finishing trowel
- Duckbill trowel
- Magnesium float
IV) Brick-laying Trowels
Especially for building walls, the brick-laying trowels are mostly in use & are designed so that the whole production of mortar speeds up.
Following are two subtypes of brick-laying trowels;
London Trowel: London trowel is mostly used for laying the brick & it has a narrower heel.
Philadelphia Trowel: Philadelphia trowel is used explicitly for concrete block production since it has a wider heel.
V) Masonry Trowels
In masonry structures, masonry trowels construction tools are used in repair type of jobs in residential houses.
Pointing Trowel: For small spaces similar to replacing singular brick, the pointing trowel is used.
Gauging Trowel: The gauging trowel is widely used for getting around pipes & other tight areas.
Margin Trowel: The margin trowel appears in a kind of edges but proper for filling mortar into cracks.
VI) Finishing Trowels
For smoothing the materials (i.e. cement & plaster), finishing trowels are mostly used.
A. Pool Trowel
In a swimming pool, a pool trowel is used to smoothen the curved edges.
B. Margin Finishing Trowel
Margin finishing trowel is the same as masonry trowel, but that margin finishing trowel is relatively more extensive than the masonry trowel.
It is a more proper choice for pouring a concrete floor
C. Duckbill Trowel
Duckbill Trowel is used to smoothing out the materials tucked in compact spaces since it has a curved and long edge.
D. Magnesium Float
To obtain a more smooth & glossy finish, magnesium float pulls water to the cement’s surface.
3. Concrete Mixer
A concrete mixer, frequently termed a cement mixer, is a machine that homogeneously mixes all the concrete ingredients, i.e., cement, aggregate, sand, gravel, and water, to develop a good quality concrete.
A standard concrete mixer adopts a revolving drum for mixing the ingredients. This is one of the most important construction tools.
4. Sand Screening Machine
The sand screening machine is one of the important construction tools to improve the quality of the sand on-site.
- In construction work, for sieving the sand, the sand screening machine is in use.
- For more easy separation of fine grain sand, sand is poured on the sieve & vibrate.
- Since only moist sand is available at many constructions, then, in that case, vibratory action is more advantageous.
5. Rubber Boots
Rubber Boots are self-protecting equipment of employers to prevent their skin from chemical or any hazardous contact.
It’s a legal obligation of an employer to take conscious steps to decrease the chance of accidents & to reduce the sharpness of injuries & damage if an accident should happen.
Construction worker’s hands are mostly exposed to various distinct hazards at the project site.
The glove can protect hands from chemicals, cuts, or burns & helps to do their respective job efficiently.
7. Bump Cutter/Screed
Bump Cutter or Screed is principally made of wood & it is utilized for leveling the fresh concrete and providing a most proper smooth surface in a concrete slab.
8. Wooden Float/wooden Rendering Float
Wooden float construction tools are used to provide a smooth finish to the plastered surface, a wooden float tool is used.
9. Plumb Bob
A plummet, or plumb bob, is simply a weight with a pointed tip on the bottom & hung from a string.
It is used as a plumb-line, the standard verticle reference line, and one precursor to the spirit level.
A plummet is utilized to stabilize a vertical datum.
10. Wheel Barrow
A wheelbarrow acts as a carrier, typically having only one wheel, consisting of a plate bolted to two handles & two legs.
- Wheel Barrow Tool is utilized for transportation of cement mortar or concrete or any other material.
- In some cases, it is used for measuring the material’s quantity at the site where concrete is being prepared.
11. Head Pan
A Head Pan is used to transport materials like excavated soil, cement, concrete, etc., from one place to another at a working site.
The Head Pan is usually made of iron & generally used at construction places.
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A concrete vibrator tool is mostly used at concrete pouring sites.
The vibrator is adopted to assure that the pour is free of air bubbles, plus it is equal, which serves to eliminate the honeycombed situation.
The vibrations make the dough liquefy, decreasing the internal friction of the mixed components of cement, sand, aggregate, and water.
The standard efficient compaction of concrete can be done by using vibrators with various speeds of vibration.
Following are the different types of concrete vibrators,
- Needle Vibrator
- Extended or Shutter Vibrator
- Surface Vibrator
- Vibrating Table
A) Needle Vibrator
They are the most commonly used vibrator for concrete, which mainly consists of a steel tube.
A needle vibrator is the most suitable choice to work on any concrete.
B) Extended or Shutter Vibrator
The Shutter vibrators suitably clamped to the formwork horizontally & vertically at a proper spacing in either direction.
The external vibrators are frequently utilized for precast thin in-situ sections of that shape & thickness as internal vibrators can’t compact them.
C) Surface Vibrator
For getting a more leveled & durable concrete surface, a surface vibrator is used to compact the concrete.
That surface vibrator is designed to provide optimum vibration, durability and situated directly on the concrete mass.
These are an excellent choice for compaction of shallow elements & should not be applied when the depth of concrete to be vibrated is greater than 250 mm.
D) Vibrating Table
A vibrating table is mainly used for a precast member like curbstone, concrete pavers, dewatering cover, different fences, sewer cover, etc.
It can 100% discharge the air within the concrete & fasten cement and other material like sand, stone particle mix; this will provide a greater hardness of the final products, which is ideal.
These are rigidly constructed steel platforms installed on steel springs & driven by electric motors.
The concrete is poured in molds mounted on the platforms & securely clamped to the vibrating table to mold & concrete vibrate in joining.
13. Line Level
Line Level is one of the smaller construction tools used for checking straight horizontal level in the following mentioned works;
- Plastering work
- Flooring work
- Plumbing work
- Tile work
14. Framing Square
It is generally an L-shaped, two-foot framing square, which is also called a “carpenter’s square” or a “steel square.”
That framing square tool is used in plastering work, Brickwork for checking the right angle.
It is also used for marking the angles for cuts used in building framing, especially in stair stringers, roof rafters and various other cuts or angles apart from 90°
With the help of framing square, some roof measurement data can measure alike:
- Rafter lengths
- Roof pitch or slope
- Stair stringer cuts
- End cuts
- Braces lengths & other construction measurements
15. Crow Bar
A crowbar construction tool is a single metal bar curved at one end used in formwork to remove nails from boards or force apart two objects.
16. Framing Hammer
A framing hammer has a more extended handle, more swing & it has a heavier head than the trim carpentry hammer.
It also has a milled face for a better and safer nail gripping operation.
It has a magnetic edge on the head that permits us to hold & start a nail in with one swing and then come back to drive it in.
Hoe tool construction tools are used to excavate a trench or the earth and are used to place the cement mortar or concrete in the mortar pan (a Mortar pan, also called a head pan).
18. Torpedo Level
Torpedo Level is one of the types of spirit level that combines framing square and line-level.
The level’s body comprises either plastic or metal, and it includes two or three tube vials. That tubes or vials mainly hold yellowish-green additives, and they are used to define the surface level.
Chisel construction tools are commonly practiced in woodwork & this is very beneficial for removing the concrete bumps or wastes of hard concrete, i.e., excess concrete in the hardened surface.
This tool has a cutting edge blade at one end, especially for manual cutting or carving of some hard materials like stone, metal, wood, etc.
20. Cordless Drill
Cordless Drill construction tools are an essential tool that is used to make pilot holes, replacing jumper (i.e. a unique kind of drill should be implemented while drilling concrete)
21. Safety Glass
Safety Eye Glasses are used for safety purposes while hacking/roughening, grinding, drilling, etc.
Getting sand in the eyes is extremely painful plus dangerous. Small sand particles can scratch the eye and can create permanent damage. By wearing a safety glass at those places can protect eyes from such circumstances.
22. Block Plane / Jack Plane
A jack plane construction tool commonly a woodworking bench plane that is used indoor and window woodworks for dressing timber down to size in preparation for truing and edge jointing.
Polisher construction tools mainly in use for smoothening the wood or marble flooring surfaces.
24. Measuring Box
A container with a standardized volume, i.e., 1 Cubic Foot, and used to measure quantities of cement, sand, aggregate, and mortar for creating a balanced mix of concrete and mortar. It is an important construction tool to measure the proper volume of cement, sand, and aggregate on the construction site.
Since it has fixed specific dimensions [300mm X 300mm X 400mm (length x width x depth)], there is no need to weigh aggregate every time.
Measuring Box will make it easier to measure the mortar ratio or concrete ratio at the site without compromising the accuracy.
25. Tile Cutter
A tile cutter is used to cut the tiles at the appropriate size.
The tile cutter is helpful when the tile’s standard size is greater than needed at the corners where the floor meets the wall.
26. Earth Rammer
The surface earth rammer is used to level the earth’s surface and make it even after ground excavation.
That surface earth rammer consists of a big block of mostly square-shaped located at its bottom end with which the ground can easily be leveled.
27. Vacuum Blower
A vacuum Blower is a tool mainly used to clean the surface impurities, i.e., dust from the surface area like a concrete slab or any floor surface.
28. Flat Pry Bar
A Flat Pry Bar tool is made of flat steel (standard dimension 2-inch x 15 inches), and it is used in shuttering for separating any two elements that have been nailed to each other.
A flat bar is a valuable tool that is rarely used to adjust the column formwork to align.
29. Digging Bar
A digging bar tool is a straight, long solid metal bar with a pin shape at the bottom which is used for numerous purposes, and they are as follows;
The digging bar tool is used to dig the hard surfaces of the ground.
It acts as a post-hole digger for breaking up or loosen hard, compacted materials like rock, soil, concrete, and ice.
It also acts as a lever for moving objects.
30. Hand Saw
A hand saw (also called “panel saws“) is used in woodworks for cutting the wood materials like windows, doors, slab panels, etc., into different shapes to join the pieces together & carve a wooden object.
31. Measuring Wheel
Measuring wheels are very simple devices. It consists of a wheel attached to a long handle with a grip. As the wheel turns, it marks the revolving distance, quickly calculating the distance.
The flatter and smoother, the surface measuring wheel is moved up, the more accurately it can determine the length.
Uses Of Measuring Wheel
Following are various uses and applications of Measuring Wheel,
I) Construction Sites
A measuring wheel can be valuable on construction sites when you’re dealing with a rough or uneven surface. Measuring wheels are often both rugged and lightweight, mostly used for long-term construction projects. For small work, small wheels are used.
For measuring the garden area, the measuring wheel is most suitable. Similarly, it is useful in landscaping in various areas.
III) Railroad Work
In the rail industry, specially designed measuring wheels for measuring tracks. This work makes it easy to get an accurate measurement, working with even surfaces.
Wheels are made of metal side plates to keep the wheel on track. These wheels are different from the standard wheels, as they’re meant to be used by a worker on foot.
Surveyors using these wheels, although it’s worth noting that they are used to record distance and don’t account for other factors such as elevation.
32. Circular Saw
The spherical saw is for cutting various materials using a rotary motion, rotating around an arbor using a power-toothed or abrasive disc or blade. A hole saw and ring saw also use a rotary motion, but these are different from a circular saw.
Circular saws can also be used loosely for blades. Circular saws were invented in the late 18th century, and saws were in everyday use in the United States until the mid-19th century.
In addition to circular saws, different saws that use circular saw blades include,
- Abrasive saw
- Biscuit joiner
- Carbide saws
- Cold saw
- Concrete saw
- Flip over saws (it is a combination of a compound mitre and table saw)
- Mitre saw (chop saw, cut-off saw)
- Multi-tool (power tool)
- Panel saw
- Pendulum saw, or swing saw
- Radial arm saw
- Sally saw
- Swing blade sawmill
- Table saw
- Track saw, or plunge saw
Uses Of Circular Saw In Wooden Work
Circular Saw also has more applications in Wood Work as follows,
I) In Sawmills to Cut Large-Sized Timbers
Mills is used small to medium-scale circular saws to cut the large timber blocks. Nowadays, sawmills are preferring more giant circular saws.
II) Cutting Logs into Firewood
The circular saw cordwood saws are used to cut logs and slabs. They cut logs and turned them into firewood by using the cordwood circular saw.
III) Cutting Down Metals
A type of circular saws, known as cold saws, are used to cut down metals such as bronze, brass, and steel into a smaller and particular size. The large diameter of the saw with the sharp edge’s teeth helps manufacturers cut down the metals with precision.
IV) Straight Cuts
If you want to cut straight cuts or 90-degree cuts, use a circular saw. The circular saw is used for cutting lumber, boards, or metals into different angles. Use a blade with a high number of teeth for smooth cuts. Use the less teethed blade for fast and abrasive cuts.
Crosscutting is mostly used to shorten the long timber and boards of required sizes. The wood is slice like the grain. So, the grain quality remains higher if the carpenter uses a traditional crosscut. The best way to get a crosscut comfortably is to use a circular saw. It effectively crosses cutting boards and provides shorten blocks faster than a table.
Ladders are portable; some are permanently fixed to a structure, building, or vertical access equipment.
The ladder is made of metal, wood, or fiberglass; it has been made of rigid plastic.
Types Of Ladder
Various Ladder Types are listed below,
- Single Pole Ladders (maximum length 9 meters)
- Extension Ladders (maximum length 15 meters)
- Step Ladders (maximum height of 6.1 meters)
- Dual Purpose Ladders (stepladder hinged)
- Platform (podium) Ladders.
Uses Of Ladder
The ladder can be used in the following operations,
- Ladder is kept temporary with support of wall in required angle for assessment on a certain height.
- Ladder is mostly used by laborers on-site for construction work.
34. Putty Knife
Putty Knife is a thin plate with sharp edges and handles on another side for a strong grip during work. The knife’s flexible blade is 0.51mm or 0.020″ thick. Putty Knives with a Stiff-blade are 1 mm or .040″ thick, suitable for scraping.
Putty Knife Uses
Following are the uses of the Putty Knife,
- As its name is used to apply the putty layer on the wall.
- It is also used to fill the material in cracks on the wall.
- It is also used to fill the wood wall or plank’s filling material.
- By using a putty knife, wall scraping to make smooth surfaces.
A bolster is an instrument used to cut the brick with smooth cuts. For rough cutting of bricks, hammers are used instead of bolster. Bolster has been handled for holding the grip with a sharp edge to cutting.
Uses Of Bolster
Some of the operations where bolster is used are given below,
- It is used to cut the brick smoothly and correctly.
- Bolster also cut hard substances like stone, metal, etc.
- It also cleans the concrete and cement for the smooth surfaces.
- Cutting tiles is very easy with bolster.
36. Boning Rod
A boning rod is a wooden strip arranged in T-shapes to draw parallel and straight lines appropriately with a certain distance. The horizontal stripe is 10mm deep, and the vertical strip is 100mm deep.
Uses Of Boning Rod
Following are the applications of Boning Rod,
- Boning rods use horizontal lines or lines with a constant slope.
- It is mainly used for setting out canal excavation works and for roads and dyke construction.
- To set out horizontal lines or lines with a continuous slope, the elevation of two points on the line must be known.
- It can be substituted with a ranging rod to make a straight line or carry out a survey process.
37. Brick Hammer
A brick hammer is a hand tool. It is very heavy with a heavy head of metal and handles different types of material like wood, iron, steel, plastic, etc. it is also known as a stonemason’s hammer.
Uses Of Brick Hammer
Brick Hammer has the following uses,
- Brick Hammer is generally used for chiping edges or small pieces of stone.
- It cut brick or a concrete masonry unit, and this hammer is also used by geologists when collecting rock and mineral samples and is one of several types of geologist’s hammer.
- It can use to break too many kinds of bricks.
A backhoe is excavating machine. It is a manually operated machine. It consists of a bucket attached to a rigid bar hinged to a boom and drawn towards the operation device. A backhoe is a large machine used to excavate a large soil amount.
In construction work, a backhoe is a machine that also excavates the soil and is loaded in tracks. The standard backhoe digging bucket sizes are 13″, 18″, 24″, and 36″ include routine teeth.
Uses Of Backhoe
Backhoe is used in performing the following operations,
I) Digging Up A Trench
Using a backhoe for trench excavation is a very easy and less time taken process with good work. The trenches are excavated properly with human power.
II) Helps In Deforestation
If work many trees are obstructed, this machine can be used. It can be shifted to other places by using backhoe buckets with cutting those trees.
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III) Leveling a Road
During road work, the surface is not leveled at the required level. Sometimes, the hill portion is to be cut, or sometimes there is depression, which is to be filled by soil. For this process, a backhoe is needed during work.
IV) Cleaning Up a Work Site
The field’s surface to be worked on is not clean; there are trees, shrubs, big stones, etc.; for removing all these objects machine is required.
V) Removing Snow
During the winter season, snow blocks the roads. Backhoe is the best machine for removing all the snow and make streets visible to the driver.
39. Binding Hook
A binding hook is a construction instrument use to binding the steel on joints or junctions. The binding Wire is 0.16 mm – 2 mm in diameter. A binding hook is a hook with a handle for grip.
It is made of different materials like wood, metal, etc. Binding weirs ties on joints or junctions of steel grills.
The bulldozer correctly refers to only a tractor with a dozer blade. A bulldozer is a large and heavy piece of equipment with a plate made of metal attached to collect large quantities of soil, sand, snow, rubble, or similar material. Most bulldozer tractors are continuous track, also termed a crawler.
Bulldozers are found on large mines and quarries, large sites, military bases, engineering projects, heavy industry factories, and farms for helping purposes. The bulldozer has primary tools; they are the blade and the ripper.
A bulldozer is available in different sizes in the market, which can be purchased or rented depending on your work requirements for a day or days. It can smoothly perform multiple tasks, making it a very flexible and useful tool to have on-site for work.
Uses Of Bulldozer
The dozer is used in different places for multiple tasks. Following are the ways to utilize the equipment,
1. Moving Soil
A bulldozer can handle heavy-duty work requirements. The front blade is mighty enough to push huge loads of material quickly; the machine can move soil and mud. It can also dig into the earth and extract soil, which can then be dumped into other areas. It can be useful for both cleaning and constructing works.
Demolition works are significant for reconstruction. A bulldozer is a piece of perfect equipment for such jobs. It can demolish any structure because the bulldozer has a powerful engine made of strong and robust materials. The bulldozer can also clean and level the land after demolition. Land renovation can never be complete without a bulldozer.
A bulldozer is used heavily in the military. The bulldozer must be modified to meet a military setup; the equipment used is essentially a bulldozer. A bulldozer fitted with bullet-proof glass is often used when a path has to be cleared or move heavy objects. It is also used to detonate mines.
Construction sites use a bulldozer mostly because it is multi-purpose. It can be used for demolition, cleaning, moving, and dumping purposes, which are the most demanding construction jobs. Using it is makes it possible for construction teams to work with less equipment, saving money and time. Hence it is ideal construction equipment.
A bulldozer is often used to plow mud and snow after heavy rain and snowfall from the road. The bulldozer’s blade can carry or push the materials aside to clear a road.
41. Bump Cutter/ Screed
A bump Cutter / Screed is usually applying on the concrete surface to make it plan and well finished.
An instrument used for constructing a flooring system is a screed that brings the floor to the wanted thickness or height and presents it properly for a specified flooring.
The screed can also be categorized as a rehabilitation method. The pre-blended mortar mixed with anhydrite-based binders and the cementitious binders will form the composition of screeds.
Objectives Of Screed In Construction
Screed include the following purposes,
- The screed must behave as a substrate suitable for the flooring type specified.
- The screed has to be laid in the schedule for work
- The screed must be durable in all service conditions without compromising internally and externally for civil, industrial, and commercial flooring applications.
Characteristics Of Screeds
The screed must possess some unique characteristics to make it suitable to install in the flooring system. These features will include,
- Sufficient Thickness
- Mechanical Resistance
- Properly Cured and Stable
- Crack Free
- Clean and Dry
42. Core Cutter Machine
Core cutting is a machine used to create an opening for pipes, wires, ventilating, or air conditioning vents to fit through, and to avoid going through reinforcement, core cutting must be carefully planned.
When need to do core cut, then first locate the rebar using a metal detector, mark the rebar position on the concrete surface and ensure the main reinforcement bars are not cut to do core cut by adjusting location.
Uses Of The Core Cutter Machine
Core Cutter Machine has the following uses,
- Creating a hole for installing ducts for A.C.s, pipes, etc.
- In old structures or bridges, it is used for strength testing samples.
- The reinforcement is never touched by a machine, whatever may be the reason for core cutting, and core cutting is usually used.
- For making precise circular cuts for creating holes of required diameters Core Cutting is used with core drilling rod is fitted with diamond pieces at the drilling end.
- For both horizontal and vertical hole, the core cutting machine can be used.
Parts Of Core Cutter Machine
The following parts of this machine;
- Water Valve
- Electrical Motor
- Gear Box
- Spindle &
43. Dewatering Pump
Dewatering pumps are centrifugal pumps installed below the groundwater level to take out water for water bodies and, this is performed to lower the water level and maintain the same level.
An example of dewatering pumps would be using it in underground mining, where water penetrating the adits is then pumped up to the surface.
Its general use is to remove water from a volume of liquid material along with solid material or soil.
Pumps help remove liquid from liquid bodies, whereas dewatering pumps separate water from another material, such as separating water from soil or sludge.
Uses of Dewatering pumps
- For removing unwanted water in pits or trenches.
- It is also used to dewater well or tube wells.
Dozer is another name for bulldozer. The dozer correctly refers to only a tractor with a dozer blade. A dozer is a large and bulky piece of equipment with a plate made of metal attached to collect large quantities of soil, sand, snow, rubble, or similar material. Most dozer tractors are continuous track, also termed a crawler.
This large machine sometimes demands at least 20 people beside an operator to impeccably carry out dozer work. It is moving on the construction site to undertake the task of clearing land, site preparation, tree removal, and forestry effortlessly, quickly, and on time.
Following are the ways to utilize that equipment,
- Moving soil
45. Drilling Machine
A drilling machine is a material-removing or cutting process in which the tool uses a drill bit to cut a hole of a circular cross-section in-wall, metal, or any solid materials.
It is the most commonly used machining process, which is one estimate is that 75% of all metal cutting material removed comes from the drilling operation.
Drilling Machine Main Parts
A drilling machine consists of the following main parts,
- Column or Pillar
- Drill head
- Feed Mechanism
- Drill jigs
- Electric Motor
- Pully or gears
Types of Drilling Machines and Their Uses
The different types of drilling machines with their construction, characteristics, and uses are listed below,
I) The Portable Drilling Machine (Hand Drilling Machine)
The Portable drilling machine also known as the Hand drilling machine is usually small in size and contains a universal motor, used for drilling holes on any rigid surface and the rocks which are also suitable for any location.
II) Sensitive Drilling Machine (Bench Drilling Machine)
It is the best choice for producing small holes with high speeds. That device mainly includes a worktable, base, spindle, driving mechanism, drill head, and column. The work started from the drill fed into the piece by hand.
III) Radial Drilling Machine
For drilling large and heavy workspaces, the table can be adjusted to suit different heights. This machine allows the operator to make the spindle over the workpiece directly rather than move the part to the tool and create intersecting or angular holds in one setup.
IV) Upright Drilling Machine
This machine is more extensive and stronger than a sensitive drilling machine, designed to handle medium to large-sized holes.
V) Gang Drilling Machine
It can be used for drilling, reaming, counterboring, and tapping; we need to move the device back and forth.
VI) Deep Mole Drilling Machine
A particular type is designed to drill deep holes in the connecting rods, spindles, and others, with high cutting speed and less feed.
VII) Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine
It consists of several spindles, perfect for drilling many holes into a part and drilling the same holes on identical workpieces.
VIII) CNC Drilling Machine
A computer numerical control drilling machine can automatically change tooling with a turret or automatic tool changer. The program controls the speeds, feeds, and table position.
IX) Micro Drill Press
It is extremely accurate, high spindle speed, used to handle tiny or minimal work parts.
X) Turret Type Drilling Machine
This equipment consists of several drilling heads mounted on a turret; the tool can be quickly indexed into position.
A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material from building sites. Dumpers are different from dump trucks in features. It is an open 4-wheeled vehicle that can skips load in front of the driver whereas the dump truck has its cab in front of the load.
The skip can tip to dump the load; this is why the name dumper comes from. These usually are diesel-powered. Towing eye is fitted for secondary use as a site tractor during work.
Dumpers having rubber tracks are used in particular circumstances and provide a more even distribution of weight than tires. Continuous tracks can be the operator to carry heavier payload on slick, snowy, or muddy surfaces and are prevalent in some countries.
Dumper and dump trucks are used in the following industries,
- Infrastructure (roads, bridges, tunnels, dams, airports, etc.)
- Winter Services
- Mining Industry
47. End Frames
The primary steelwork is consisting columns and rafters to form portal frames and bracing. The end frame is simply a braced arrangement or a portal frame composition of rafters and columns.
The light gauge secondary steelwork consists of side rails for walls and purlins for the roof on work.
Frames structures can be categorized as,
I) Rigid Frame Structure
II) Braced Frame Structure
I) Rigid Structural Frame
The word rigid implies the ability of the frame to stand the deformation.
The structure with beams and columns built monolithically & they are acting together to tolerate the moments generated because the implemented load is called a rigid frame structure and offers extra stability.
This kind of frame structure bears the moment, shear & torsion more efficiently than any other type of frame structure.
Which can be further differentiated as,
- Fixed ended
- Pin ended
A) Pin Ended Rigid Structural Frames
A pinned ended the rigid frame, commonly pins as their support conditions. If supported conditions are removed, this frame system is reflected to be non-rigid.
B) Fix Ended Rigid Frame Structure
In this rigid frame system, end conditions are generally fixed.
II) Braced Structural Frames
In this frame, bracing is provided between column & beam to powerful force their resistance besides the sideways forces and lateral forces because of an applied load.
Bracing is typically done by position diagonally members surrounded by the columns & beams. It is further subdivided as,
- Portal frames
- Gabled frames
A) Gabled Structural Frame
Gabled frame structures have peaks at their top. These frame systems are used with changes in the atmosphere, heavy rainfall, or snowfall.
B)Portal Structural Frame
Portal structural frames used to construct commercial & industrial buildings. Which generally looks like a door structure.
Merits of Frame Structures
Frame structures can be constructed rapidly. One of the best benefits of frame structures is they are comfortable in construction work. It is effortless to train the labor at the construction site.
Demerits of Frames
In frame structure, span length is typically restricted to 40 feet when reinforced concretely.
An excavator is a construction vehicle used to excavate or move large materials like soil, stone, etc. An Excavator comprises two parts driving a powerful boom arm with an attachment designed for excavating.
The excavator uses hydraulic power to generate a hydraulic force to control its mechanical arm. It is also using a chain wheel system for its movement during work.
Uses Of An Excavator
Following are the uses of Excavator,
- It excavates soil during construction work.
- The primary benefits are digging trenches, holes, and foundations, providing the power to do these tasks much more efficiently and effectively than any other heavy equipment piece on the market.
As an industrial vehicle, A forklift is made of a power-operated forked platform firmly attached to the front for raising and lowering goods to insertion under a cargo to lift or move it.
Some Forklifts can allow the operators to sit while driving and operating the machine, while others can require the operator to stand during working on it. It is being used throughout the industry for transporting heavy and large materials and goods.
Uses of Forklift
A Forklift can be used for the following activities,
- It is used in a warehouse setting, a forklift to quickly and easily move goods within the warehouse.
- It can also load and unload goods from transport trailers or train cars.
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