**Thumb Rules For Civil Site Engineers**

Thumb Rules For Civil Engineering is essential for any civil engineer, Site engineer, or civil supervisor. They play a crucial role while taking quick decisions on-site. There is some civil engineering basic knowledge that every civil engineer must know.

The thumb rule for construction helps you in finding out the solution using a simple mathematical formula and make smart decisions whenever needed.

But, while using these** **thumb rules, you must remember that the thumb rule never gives exact or accurate results, you just have used them for approximate results.

There is** **a number of Thumb Rule For Civil Engineers that we used in construction work. So, the following are some most frequently used Thumb rules on the Construction site.

The Thumb rule method is an approximate & comparing method. In thumb rules and the units are not the same when we compare to get the results. So, ignore units while performing the thumb rule.

**Read More: Tips for Civil Site Engineers**

**Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering In Construction**

The thumb rules in civil engineering are as follows,

### 1. **Thumb Rule for Concrete Volume**

The volume of concrete required = 0.038 m3/square feet area

Example:- If Plan Area = 40 x 20 = 800 Sq. m.

So, for the plan area of 800 Sq. m. the area the total volume of concrete required.

= **800 x 0.038m3 = 30.4m3**

### 2. **Thumb Rule for Steel Quantity for Slab, Beams, Footings & C**olumns

Following are some important thumb rules for steel calculation for slab, beam, column, and footings.

Steel required in residential buildings = 4.5 Kgs – 4.75 Kgs / sq. Ft.

Steel required For Commercial buildings = 5.0 Kgs-5.50 Kgs/Sq. Ft.

You can also use BN Datta recommendations for the more accurate result,

The following recommendations Thumb Rules For Civil Engineering are given in B N Datta for the Steel quantity used in different members of the building.

**Read More: 12 Roles and Responsibilities of Civil Site Engineer Pdf**

### 3. **Percentage of Steel in Structural Members**

Following are thumb rules for reinforcement in concrete members,

1) Slab – 1% of the total volume of concrete (Slab steel calculation thumb rule)

2) Beam – 2% of the total volume of concrete

3) Column – 2.5% of total volume of concrete

4) Footings – 0.8% of the total volume of concrete

Example:

How to calculate the steel quantity of slab having the Length, width, and depth of the slab is 5m x 4m x 0.15m

**Step 1: Calculate the Volume of Concrete:**

The Total Volume of Concrete for the given Slab = 5 x 4 x 0.15

= 3m^{3}

**Step 2: Calculate The Steel Quantity Using the Formula:**

As per the guidelines given in the BN Dutta reference book the steel quantity of the slab is 1% of the total volume of concrete utilized.

A thumb rule to estimate the Steel quantity of the above slab = Volume of Concrete x Density of Steel x % of Steel of the Member

Steel weight required for above slab = 3 x 7850 x 0.01 = 235Kgs

For accurate estimation, you can refer to Bar Bending Schedule

**Read More: Civil Calculator (Civil Engineering Calculator)**

**4. Thumb Rules For Shuttering Work**

Shuttering costs are taken as 15-18% of the total construction of the building. Shuttering work is done to bring the concrete into Shape. The Thumb rule to estimate the shuttering required is 6 times the quantity of concrete or 2.4 times the Plinth area.

For example, if the concrete quantity is 0.5m^{3}, then

Area of Shuttering is 0.5 x 6 = 3m^{2}

Components of Shuttering

Shuttering Ply Quantity estimation

The Shuttering plate Ply, Battens, and Nails are components of Shuttering.

Suppose, The Shuttering Ply has a length, width & depth of 2.44 x 1.22 x 0.012

The** **No. of Shuttering Ply Sheets = 0.22 times of Shuttering

Suppose, the Shuttering Area = 3m

Then Ply required for shuttering = 0.22 x 3 = 0.66m^{2}

### 5. **Battens Quantity Calculation**

Shuttering Batten usually has a length & width of 75mm x 40mm.

Batten Quantity = 19.82 x No. of Ply Sheets

If work requires 25 Ply sheets, the total quantity of Battens is 19.82 x 25 = 495 Battens

Nails & Binding Wire Quantity in Shuttering:

Approximately, 75 grams of Nails were used in the shuttering of the 1m^{2} area.

75gms of** **Binding wire is used for every 1m^{2} of Shuttering.

**The thumb rule for Shuttering oil estimation :**

Shuttering oil is applied on the shuttering plate surface used to de-frame or de-assemble from the concrete easily.

Total required Shuttering oil = 0.065 x Total Area of Shuttering

(or)

For every 15m^{2} of shuttering 1 liter of shuttering oil is consumed.

Example :

If, total area of shuttering is 15 m2, then Shuttering oil Consumption = 0.065 x 15 = 0.975.

**Read More:** **17 Tips For How To Reduce Construction Cost**

**6. Thumb Rule for Cement, Sand, Coarse Aggregate Quantity Calculations**

Note: 1 bag of cement = 50Kgs

Thumb rule for Cement required in Brickwork, Cement Masonry & Plastering work in construction

**7. Thumb Rules For Civil Engineers for Brickwork**

The following are Thumb Rules for civil engineering for brickwork and cement quantity calculations.

Brickwork for 1m^{3} | Cement Qty in m^{3} | Cement Qty in Bags |

230 mm Brickwork | 0.876m^{3} | 25.4 Bags |

115 mm Brickwork | 0.218m^{3} | 6.32 Bags |

**8. Thumb Rules For Cement Masonry Quantity**

Cement Masonry Type & Mix | Cement Qty in Bags | Cement Qty in Kgs |

200mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:6 | 0.124Bags/m^{2} | 6.2Kgs/m^{2} |

150mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:6 | 0.093Bags/m^{2} | 4.65Kgs/m^{2} |

200mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4 | 0.206Bags/m^{2} | 10.3Kgs/m^{2} |

150mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4 | 0.144Bags/m^{2} | 7.2Kgs/m^{2} |

100mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4 | 0.103Bags/m^{2} | 5.15Kgs/m^{2} |

**8. Thumb Rules Plastering Quantity **

Type of Plastering | Cement Qty in Bags | Cement Qty in Kgs |

Rough Plastering | 0.09 Bags/m^{2} | 4. 5Kgs/m^{2} |

Internal Wall Plastering | 0.09 Bags/m^{2} | 4.5 Kgs/m^{2} |

Duct Plastering | 0.09 Bags/m^{2} | 4.5 Kgs/m^{2} |

External Wall plastering | 0.175 Bags/m^{2} | 8.75 Kgs/m^{2} |

Stucco Plastering | 0.175 Bags/m^{2} | 8.75 Kgs/m^{2} |

Lathen Plastering | 0.55 Bags/m^{2} | 27.5 Kgs/m^{2} |

### 9. Thumb Rules In Building Construction Cost

The thumb rule for house construction cost is a rough estimation of the total cost of construction based on the built-up area of the house. Typically, thumb rules are quick and easy to use but are not precise and may not take into account specific factors that affect the actual cost of construction.

As an approximate guide, a common thumb rule for house construction cost is between Rs. 1500 to Rs. 2500 per square foot, depending on factors such as the quality of materials used, location, design, and labour costs. This would mean that a 1000 square feet house may cost between Rs. 15 lakhs to Rs. 25 lakhs.

Below is a general thumb rule that can be used to estimate the building materials and work required for a given unit area of construction.

Sr. No. | Material/ Work | Thumb Rule |

1. | Cement (bags) | 0.43 bags / sq ft |

2. | Sand (cu.ft) | 2.5 kg / sq ft |

3. | Aggregate (cu.ft) | 1.20 cu ft / sq ft |

4. | Steel (kg) | 1.34 cu ft / sq ft |

5. | Bricks (Nos.) | 7.3 no / sq ft |

6. | Tiles (Nos.) | 0.7 nos / sq ft |

7. | Colour (Liters) | 0.12 lit / sq ft |

8. | Finishing Works | â‚¹ 470/sq ft |

9. | Electrical Cost | â‚¹ 250 /sq ft |

10. | Plumbing Cost | â‚¹ 150 /sq ft |

11. | Fire Fighting Cost | â‚¹ 45 /sq ft |

12. | Exterior Cost | â‚¹ 94.5 / sq ft |

Thumb Rule according to materials percentages,

Description | Thumb rule (% of Total Cost) |

Cement | 14.4% |

Sand | 12.3% |

Aggregate | 7.4% |

Steel | 20.6% |

Painting material | 5.1% |

Tiles | 8% |

Bricks | 5.4% |

Window | 3% |

Doors | 4.4% |

Plumbing | 7.5% |

Electrical | 6.8% |

Sanitary | 4.1% |

## Thumb rules for construction cost

The cost of construction can vary depending on the quality of materials and workmanship used. Below is an overview of the average construction costs based on the quality of construction. This information can serve as a useful reference point for estimating the costs of a building project.

Sr. No. | Construction based on Quality | Thumb Rule |

1. | Basic Quality Construction | 1000 Rs./Sqft |

2. | Medium Quality Construction | 1300 Rs./Sqft |

3. | High Quality Construction | 1700 Rs./Sqft |

## 1000 Sqft House average cost of construction Thumb Rule

Sr. No. | Description of Work | 1000 sq ft House Average Cost |

1. | Architectural Cost | Rs. 12,500 Onwards |

2. | Brick wall Construction without RCC | Rs. 700 per sqft |

3. | Brick wall Construction With RCC | Rs. 850 per sqft |

4. | Civil Construction Work | Rs. 1400 per sqft |

5. | Electric and Plumbing Work | Rs. 2400 per sqft |

6. | Raw Material Cost In Construction | Rs. 8 Lakh Onwards |

A common approach to estimating building costs is to use a thumb rule based on the percentage of the total project cost. This method provides a rough estimate of the building cost and is often used as a starting point for budgeting purposes.

Sr. No. | Work | Cost |

1. | Excavation and Filling Earthwork | 0.6% |

2. | Foundation Work | 4.9% |

3. | DPC | 1.2% |

4. | Brick work | 32% |

5. | Roofing | 22% |

6. | Flooring | 5% |

7. | Doors and window | 17% |

8. | Plastering | 9% |

9. | White Washing | 3% |

10. | Miscellaneous | 5.5% |

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## FAQs

### How do you calculate the steel-by-thumb rule?

Following are Thumb Rules for reinforcement steel in concrete members,

1) Slab â€“ 1% of the total volume of concrete (Slab steel calculation thumb rule)

2) Beam â€“ 2% of the total volume of concrete

3) Column â€“ 2.5% of the total volume of concrete

4) Footings â€“ 0.8% of the total volume of concrete

### What is a good rule of thumb?

The thumb RuleÂ can be called a guideline, idea, or principle that helps you make quick decisions. “Arrive early” is anÂ efficient good Thumb RuleÂ for most appointments. It referred to builders who frequently use theirÂ thumbsÂ to estimate measurements. It is a helpful rule even being inexact.

### What is the basic knowledge of civil engineering?

**BASIC THINGS CIVIL ENGINEERS SHOULD KNOW,**

1. Lapping in reinforcement is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

2. Steel Char maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2.

3. In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.

4. Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.

5. Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

6. The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 Noâ€™s and 6 Noâ€™s for the circular column.

### What is the thumb rule to determine beam depth?

The method for determining the width-depthÂ ratio of reinforced concreteÂ beamsÂ is not specifically given in codes. However, a thumb rule can be used i.e taking depth that is two and a half to three times theÂ beam’sÂ width. For long-spanÂ beams, it is generally economical to use deep and narrow sections.

### Thumb Rules For Civil Site Engineer pdf

Thumb Rules For Civil Engineering pdf is essential for any civil engineer, Site engineer, or civil supervisor. They play a crucial role while taking quick decisions on site. There is some civil engineering basic knowledge that every civil engineer must know.

### Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering

Thumb ruleÂ requirement of standard materials and standard calculation in high raised building,

Steel =3 to 5 kg / sqft.

Cement =0.5bags/ sqft.

RMC =0.05 m3/sqft.

Block =12.5 nos /sqm.

Electrical cast = Rs 133/sqft.

Plumbing cost = Rs 126/sqft.

Fire fighting cost = Rs 40/sqft.

External development = Rs 94.5/sqft.

SARTAJ AHMAD BHATWhat about Culvert and bridge details. Please may send in relevant

RoshanThe volume of concrete required = 0.038 m3/square feet area

Example:-

If Plan Area = 40 x 20 = 800 Sq. Ft.

So, for the plan area of 800 Sq. Ft. area the total volume of concrete required

= 800 x 0.038m3 = 30.4m3o

Sir, plan area square feet Mai hai aur concrete density cubic meter Mai ? It is right sir?

Mike MahajanSorry, Area is 40 x20 m = 800 sq. M

It is by mistake.

Thanks for knowing me

sjsir,

sqm of area and cubic metre of concrete.

can we evaluate like that?

units are not in sync

GAURAV SHRESTHAThe volume of concrete required = 0.038 m3/square feet area

OR

The volume of concrete required = 0.038 m3/square METER area??

SantoshFor 800sqm area 0.38cum conc

Ie 800 x 0.38 = 304cum concrete

SekarCement consumption is 63 kg only for 1 cum bwork .why 24 bags.

Shrikant BendkaleCement content for brickwork is 50-70 kg then why given as 25.4 bag

Mohd mehrajIn have 2plots. 23*29. Second 25*36. TOTAL LENGTH 48. IF I TAKE SQURE 48*29. PLS HELP ME FOR G+ 2 PLAN . GROUND.FLOOR FOR OWNER 1 AND 2 FLOOR FOR RENTAL

Manikandan RMKI leaning for more Impermation at this web site. All comments is very correct and easy to leaning the method.

ukasReally useful this article

Devendra shindevery usefull

RuwanCan you please tell me thumb rule estimation for aluminium and glass facade multi storey buildings?

PushprajHow to downlode pdf

Rohit KhandeSir , this article is very usefull

Thank you sir

Sir please provide complete rrc design of g+1 building

Ranjan PirkeWhere is the link for downloading this Article?

Mike Mahajansave as pdf

Load Calculation on Column, Beam & Slab

Steel DetailingThanks to its very good explanation of how to calculate the full detail in Thumb rules very inforamtive topic. How to download its details aside from the screenshot to be used?