Important point for civil engineers

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge | Basics of Civil Engineering | Basic Knowledge of Civil Construction

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge
Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

Following are the basics of civil engineering points to remember for civil engineers to make the construction work easier while maintaining a quality of construction;

  • Lapping in reinforcement is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.
  • Steel Char maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2.
  • In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.
  • Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.
  • Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
  • The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No’s and 6 No’s for the circular column.
  • Main bars used in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
  • The minimum thickness of the slab should be 125 mm.
  • The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50m in height.
  • Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36 mm.
  • Water absorption of bricks is limited to not more than 15 %.
  • PH value of the water used should not be less than 6.
  • The minimum Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2.
  • The binding wire required in steel reinforcement is 8 kg per Metric tonne.
  • For soil filling work as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for the core cutting test for every 100m2.

Read More: Structural Components Of Building And Their Standard Dimensions


The density of Construction Materials

  • Bricks – 1600 – 1920 kg/m3
  • Concrete block – 1920 kg/ m3
  • Reinforce Concrete – 2310 – 2700 kg/ m3
  • Plain cement Concrete- 2400 kg/m3
  • Lime mortar- 1760kg/m3
  • Aluminum – 2739 kg/m3
  • Glass – 2580 kg/m3
  • Zinc – 7135 kg/m3
  • Clay soil – 1900 kg/m3
  • Bamboo – 350 kg/m3

Curing Time for Concrete Members for Various Types of Cement

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge | Basics of Civil Engineering | Basic Knowledge of Civil Construction
Curing of Concrete
  • Super Sulphate cement: 7 days
  • Ordinary Portland cement OPC: 10 days
  • Minerals & Admixture added cement: 14 days

De-Shuttering Period of Different RCC Members

  1. The period for columns, walls, and vertical formworks – 16-24 hrs.
  2. Period for Soffit formwork to slabs – 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)
  3. The period for Soffit to beams props – 7 days (props to be refixed after removal)
  4. Beams spanning up to 4.5m – 7 days
  5. Beams spanning over 4.5m – 14 days
  6. Arches spanning up to 6m – 14 days
  7. Arches spanning over 6m – 21 days

Minimum Nos. Of Concrete Cube Sample for Given Volume of Concrete

  • 1 – 5 m3 = 1 Nos.
  • 6 – 15 m3 = 2 Nos.
  • 16 – 30 m3 = 3 Nos.
  • 31 – 50 m3 = 4 Nos.
  • Above 50 m3 = 4 + 1 Nos.

Grade of Concrete

Grade of ConcreteThe proportion of C:S: A
M51:5:10
M7.51:4:8
M101:3:6
M151:2:4
M201:1.5:3
M251:1:2
Grade of Concrete

M30 and above this grade based on the mix design.

Clear Cover for main reinforcement

  • For Beam: 25mm
  • For Slab: 15mm
  • For Flat slab: 20mm
  • For Staircase: 15mm
  • For Watertank Structure: 20 to 30 mm
  • For Retaining Wall: 20 to 25mm to earth surface
  • For Column: 40mm
  • For Shearwall: 25mm
  • For Raftfoundation topside: 50mm
  • For Raftfoundation Bottom and Sides: 75mm

Main Part of Building

  • Foundation
  • Sub Structure
  • Super Structure

Basic Component of Structure

  • Foundation
  • Beam and Column
  • Wall
  • Plinth
  • Slab
  • Staircase
  • Flooring
  • Parapet wall
  • Finishing Work like plastering, painting

Different types of loads act on building

  • Live Load
  • Dead Load
  • Wind Load
  • Self Load
  • Snow Load
  • Seismic Load or Earthquake load
  • Hurricane Load at some location

Types of Building Materials

  • Steel
  • Cement
  • Aggregate
  • Sand
  • Brick
  • Stone
  • Wood
  • Foam
  • Glass
  • Plastic
  • Clay
  • Clay Blocks
  • Lime
  • Paints
  • Marbles
  • Tiles
  • Water
  • Admixture
  • Bitumen
  • Tar
  • Asphalt
  • Gypsum
  • Surkhi
  • Copper
  • Sanitary and fittings
  • Wires
  • Gravels
  • Roofing Materials
  • Rolled Steel
  • Concrete
  • Ceramic
  • Copper
  • Fabrics

Types of Structure

  • Load Bearing Structuure
  • Framed Structure
  • Truss Structure
  • Shell Structure
  • Cable Structure
  • Composite Structure
  • Tension Structure
  • Mass Structure
  • Pre Engineered Structure

Slump Value for Different Concrete Work

Concrete WorkSlump Value in mm
Mass Construction25-50
Beams and Slabs12-25
Cement Concrete Pavement30-75
Deck of Bridge20-30
Vibrated Concrete50-100
Retaining Wall, Column75-150
Slump Value for different Concrete

Unit Conversation

  • 1 foot = 12 inches
  • 1 foot = 0.304 meter
  • 1 foot = 304.8 mm
  • 1 foot = 30 cm
  • 1 inch = 25.4 mm
  • 1 inch = 2.54 centimeter
  • 1 yard = 3 ft
  • 1 yard = 36 inches

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FAQs

What are the basic things a civil engineer should know?

BASIC THINGS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS:
1. Lapping in reinforcement is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.
2. Steel Char maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2.
3. In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.
4. Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.
5. Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
6. The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No’s and 6 No’s for the circular column.

What a site engineer should know?

Following are the points Civil engineers should know:
1. The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50m in height.
2. Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36 mm.
3. Water absorption of bricks is limited to not more than 15 %.
4. PH value of the water used should not be less than 6.
5. The minimum Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2.
6. The binding wire required in steel reinforcement is 8 kg per Metric tonne.

What are the 5 major facets of civil engineering?

5 Major Facets of Civil Engineering:
1. Geotechech
2. Construction and Management
3. Structure
4. Transportation
5. Architecture

Who is the Father of a Civil Engineering?

John Smeaton
John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British Civil Engineer back in the 18th century and has since come to be known as the Father of Civil Engineering. His designs of ridges, canals, lighthouses, harbors, and mills were a great milestone in Civil Engineering. His works can be found across the UK.

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