Civil engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of infrastructure and the built environment. Here are some basic civil engineering knowledge related to civil engineering:

## Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

The following are the** **basics civil engineering knowledge points to remember for civil engineers to make the construction work easier while maintaining the quality of construction;

- Lapping

- Steel Char maximum spacing
^{2}.

- In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.

- Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.

- Longitudinal reinforcement

- The minimum bars used for a square column

- The main bars used in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.

- The minimum thickness of the slab should be 125 mm.

- The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50m in height.

- Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36 mm.

- Water absorption of bricks is limited to not more than 15 %.

- The PH value of the water used should not be less than 6.

- The minimum Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm
^{2.}

- The binding wire required in steel reinforcement

- For soil filling work as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for the core cutting test for every 100m
^{2}.

Read More: Structural Components Of Building And Their Standard Dimensions

**The density of Construction Materials**

- Bricks – 1600 â€“ 1920 kg/m
^{3} - Concrete block – 1920 kg/ m
^{3} - Reinforce Concrete – 2310 â€“ 2700 kg/ m
^{3} - Plain cement Concrete- 2400 kg/m
^{3} - Lime mortar- 1760kg/m
^{3} - Aluminum – 2739 kg/m
^{3} - Glass – 2580 kg/m
^{3} - Zinc – 7135 kg/m
^{3} - Clay soil – 1900 kg/m
^{3} - Bamboo – 350 kg/m
^{3}

**Curing Time for Concrete Members for Various Types of Cemen**t

- Super Sulphate cement: 7 days
- Ordinary Portland cement OPC: 10 days
- Minerals & Admixture added cement: 14 days

**De-Shuttering Period of Different RCC Me**mbers

- The period for columns, walls, and vertical formworks – is 16-24 hrs.
- Period for Soffit formwork to slabs – 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)
- The period for Soffit to beams props – is 7 days (props to be refixed after removal)
- Beams spanning up to 4.5m – 7 days
- Beams spanning over 4.5m – 14 days
- Arches spanning up to 6m – 14 days
- Arches spanning over 6m – 21 days

### Minimum Nos. Of Concrete Cube Sample for Given Volume of Concrete

- 1 â€“ 5 m
^{3}= 1 Nos. - 6 – 15 m
^{3}= 2 Nos. - 16 â€“ 30 m
^{3}= 3 Nos. - 31 â€“ 50 m
^{3}= 4 Nos. - Above 50 m
^{3}= 4 + 1 Nos**.**

### Grade of Concrete

Grade of Concrete | The proportion of C:S: A |

M5 | 1:5:10 |

M7.5 | 1:4:8 |

M10 | 1:3:6 |

M15 | 1:2:4 |

M20 | 1:1.5:3 |

M25 | 1:1:2 |

**Grade of Concrete**

M30 and above this grade is based on the mix design.

### Clear Cover for main reinforcement

- For Beam: 25mm
- For Slab: 15mm
- For Flat slab
**:**20mm - For Staircase: 15mm
- For Watertank Structure:
- For Retaining Wall: 20 to 25mm to the earth’s surface
- For Column: 40mm
- For Shearwall: 25mm
- For Raft foundation topside: 50mm
- For Raft foundation Bottom and Sides: 75mm

### Main Part of Building

- Foundation
- Sub Structure
- Super Structure

### Basic Component of Structure

- Foundation
- Beam and Column
- Wall
- Plinth
- Slab
- Staircase
- Flooring
- Parapet wall
- Finishing Work like plastering, painting

### Different types of loads act on building

- Live Load
- Dead Load
- Wind Load
- Self Load
- Snow Load
- Seismic Load or Earthquake load
- Hurricane Load at some location

### Types of Building Materials

- Steel
- Cement
- Aggregate
- Sand
- Brick
- Stone
- Wood
- Foam
- Glass
- Plastic
- Clay
- Clay Blocks
- Lime
- Paints
- Marbles
- Tiles
- Water
- Admixture
- Bitumen
- Tar
- Asphalt
- Gypsum
- Surkhi
- Copper
- Sanitary and fittings
- Wires
- Gravels
- Roofing Materials
- Rolled Steel
- Concrete
- Ceramic
- Copper
- Fabrics

### Types of Structure

- Load Bearing Structuure
- Framed Structure
- Truss Structure
- Shell Structure
- Cable Structure
- Composite Structure
- Tension Structure
- Mass Structure
- Pre Engineered Structure

### Slump Value for Different Concrete Work

Concrete Work | Slump Value in mm |

Mass Construction | 25-50 |

Beams and Slabs | 12-25 |

Cement Concrete Pavement | 30-75 |

Deck of Bridge | 20-30 |

Vibrated Concrete | 50-100 |

Retaining Wall, Column | 75-150 |

**Slump Value for different Concrete**

### Unit Conversation

- 1 foot = 12 inches
- 1 foot = 0.304 meter
- 1 foot = 304.8 mm
- 1 foot = 30 cm
- 1 inch = 25.4 mm
- 1 inch = 2.54 centimeter
- 1 yard = 3 ft
- 1 yard = 36 inches

## Types of Foundation

here’s list of types of foundations in building construction:

- Spread Footing
- Combined Footing
- Slab-on-Grade
- Pile Foundations
- Caisson Foundations
- Pier Foundations
- Mat Foundations (Raft Foundations)
- Strip Foundations
- Floating Foundations
- Screw Pile Foundations
- Tension Pile Foundations
- Well Foundations

## FAQs

**What are the basic things a civil engineer should know?**

BASIC THINGS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS:

1. Lapping in reinforcement is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

2. Steel Char maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m^{2}.

3. In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.

4. Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.

5. Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

6. The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No and 6 No for the circular column.

**What a site engineer should know?**

Following are the points Civil engineers should know:

1. The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50m in height.

2. Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36 mm.

3. Water absorption of bricks is limited to not more than 15 %.

4. PH value of the water used should not be less than 6.

5. The minimum Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2.

6. The binding wire required in steel reinforcement is 8 kg per Metric tonne.

**What are the 5 major facets of civil engineering?**

5 Major Facets of Civil Engineering:

1. Geotechech

2. Construction and Management

3. Structure

4. Transportation

5. Architecture

**Who is the Father of a **Civil Engineering**?**

John Smeaton

John Smeaton (8 June 1724 â€“ 28 October 1792) was a British Civil Engineer back in the 18th century and has since come to be known as theÂ Father of Civil Engineering. His designs of ridges, canals, lighthouses, harbors, and mills were a great milestone in Civil Engineering. His works can be found across the UK.

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Civil engineering basic knowledge

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