Density of Cement, Sand and Aggregate

Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Sand Density | Cement Density | Density of Aggregate | Density of concrete12 min read

Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate

Density is mass per unit volume of a substance i.e. unit weight of that respective substance. Density is denoted in a symbolic form called line (p). It states the degree of compactness of material, the higher the density of substance more compacted the material is.

Unit of density is kg / m3 or lb / ft3. However it can be determined as,

p = m/V = 1/v, Where,

  • p = density [kg / m3]  or [slugs / ft3]
  • m = mass [kg] or [slugs]
  • V = volume [m3]  or  [ft3]
  • v = specific volume [m3 / kg] or  [ft3 / slug]

Note: 1 kg / m3 = 0.624 lb / ft3

Density of Cement

density of cement

Much research has been done to know the density of concrete in order to increase its strength and durability.  In this process density of cement has got less concern.

However, Cement being a binder in concrete, knowing its density will be very useful to change the characteristics of concrete. Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg /m3 according to standards.

Read More: Specific Gravity Test of Cement – Procedure, Result

Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1

Cement TypesDensity in Kg/m3Density in KN/m3
Lime Mortar1600-184016-18
Ordinary Cemen144014.4
PCC (Plain Cement Concrete)240024

Sand Density

Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Sand Density | Cement Density | Density of Aggregate | Density of concrete
Sand for Construction

Near about 35% volume of the concrete is comprised of sand. For concrete to be of good quality it should be produced by careful mixing of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, and admixtures as needed in order to obtain optimum quality and economy.

Natural sand i.e. locally available River sand having a bulk density of 1.71 kg/m3 was used for the construction (specific gravity is 2.65). This sand has the Fineness modulus of 5.24.

Alternative to Natural Sand is Manufactured Sand; M-Sand was used as having the bulk density of 1.75kg/m3 with specific gravity and fineness modulus around 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.

Densities of various sands are listed below,

  • Loose sand has a density of 1442 kg / m3 as it is a dry form of sand.
  • Dry sand itself has a density of 1602 kg / m3. This sand is obtained in its undisturbed natural form, where it has been partially compacted by environmental factors.
  • Packed sand is known to have a density of around 1682 kg / m3. It is the Sand that is packed manually or mechanically.
  • Wet sand has a density of 1922 kg / m3 whereas Wet packed sand has 2082 kg / m3of density.

Aggregate Density

Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Sand Density | Cement Density | Density of Aggregate | Density of concrete

Aggregates are clustered inert granular materials of non-metallic substances such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone obtained in the form of particles and processed, along with water and Portland cement, to form an essential ingredient called concrete.

Aggregates Are of Two Types-

  • Fine aggregate
  • Coarse aggregate

Fine aggregate is basically natural sand, which is processed by washing and sieving in order to remove particles of unwanted sizes. To obtain a good quality of fine aggregates it should be free from all particles above 5mm.

Coarse aggregate is a type of gravel, which is crushed, washed, and sieved to a particular size from 5 to 50 mm. The prepared mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is more expensive than the natural all-in aggregate as it has undergone further processing.

The basic of the basic reason for use of mixed fine and coarse aggregate is that to combine them in the correct proportions. The chance of forming voids is reduced to a great extent.

Bulk Density of Aggregate

Bulk Density of aggregate can be explained as Mass or Weight of the selected aggregate required with specific unit volume to fill a container.


Bulk density = Mass / volume

It can also be explained as if the volume of aggregate is one unit, then its Bulk density = Mass.

Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.

1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb / ft3) is the value specified according to standards apparent density of the aggregate that is commonly used. The standard test method commonly used to determine the apparent density of aggregates is presented in the ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) standard.

The Relative Density of Aggregate

The relative density i.e. specific gravity is the ratio between its Mass and the Mass of an equal volume of water.

Therefore, Relative density = Mass of the aggregate / Mass with an equal volume of water

Commonly used aggregates have an approximately relative density between 2.4-2.9 with a respective particle density (Mass) of 2400-2900 kg m3 (150-181 lb / ft3).

Read More: Difference Between Cement and Concrete |Concrete Vs Cement | What Is Cement Concrete

The Density of Building Materials As Per IS 875 Part-1

Density of Civil Martials

Construction MaterialsDensity (Kg /m3)Density (lb/ft3)Density (Kn /m3)
Concrete (PCC)2400149.824
Concrete (RCC)  250015625
Rapid Hardening Cement  128079.8712.8
Ordinary Cement  144089.8714.4
African Mahogany495-85031-534.95-8.5
Willow Wood42026.2      4.2
Saline Water102563.9610.25
African mahogany495-85031-354.95-8.5
Honduras mahogany545345.45
American redwood450284.5
European redwood51031.85.1
Fir (staka)450284.5
Aphromosia  7.05
Gray (black)54033.75.4
Gray (white)67041.86.7
Lignum vitae1280-137079.9-85.512.80-13.70
Sandy Soil1800112.318
Clay Soil1900118.619
Gravel soil2000124.620
Sedimentary rocks2600162.326
Metamorphic rocks2700168.527
Igneous (felsic) rock2700168.827
Igneous(mafic) rock3000182.730
Cement mortar2080129.820.8
Lime mortar1760109.817.6
Stainless steel7480-8000766.9-499.474.8-80
Cast iron7208449.972.08
Brick Dust101063.02410.1
Clay Soil1900118.5619
Earth (Dry)1410-184087.98-114.8214.10-18.40
Earth (Moist)1600-200099.84-124.816.00-20.00
Fire Bricks2400149.7624
Granite Stone2400-2690149.76-167.8524-26.90
Gypsum Mortar120074.8812
Gypsum Powder1410-176087.98-109.8214.10-17.60
Plane Cement Concrete2400149.824
Sal Wood86553.988.65
Sand (Dry)1540-160096.09-99.8415.40-16
Sand (Wet)1760-2000109.82-124.8017.6-20.00
Stone Ballast1720107.3317.2
Stone Chips1600-192099.84-119.8116.00-19.20

Density of RCC

Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Sand Density | Cement Density | Density of Aggregate | Density of concrete

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is to increases the tensile strength of concrete. Concrete is good in compression but weak in tension, hence in order to provide the tensile strength to concrete, mild steel bars are reinforced within concrete.

The density of RCC is kept high in order to acquire the adequate strength of the concrete. Since density is measure with respect to the compactness of material, RCC needs to be well compacted without any void remains.

Density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3, as per specified by the standards.

Density of PCC

Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Sand Density | Cement Density | Density of Aggregate | Density of concrete

Factors affecting the density of concrete are aggregate density, air content, water, and cement content as influenced by the maximum aggregate size. Concrete has a tendency to provide a large diversity of unit weights.

Not much differing from the RCC, the density of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) is 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3. The compactness of PCC defined by 24KN/m3 of density makes PCC be used as a foundation cement concrete.

In the above table Density of PCC is mentioned in various units.

Read More: What Is PPC Cement | PCC Full-Form | Difference Between OPC and PPC Cement

FAQs: Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate

Density of Fine Aggregate

The density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

Density of Coarse Aggregate

The density of coarse sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

Density of Cement

2.8 g/cm³ (gram per cubic centimetre)

Density of Cement in kg/m3

Cement Density measured in Kg/m3 (kilograms/cubic meter), density is the ratio of mass to volume. So the density of cement in kg/m3 is 1440, in another word, 1440 kg/m3 is the density of cement.

Density of Sand

1680 kg/m3
The approximate bulk density of sand that used to make concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3). Here, the standard test method to determine the bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19).

Bulk Density of Aggregate

The Unit weight or bulk density of aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate required to fill a container of a specified unit volume. The approximate unit weight of aggregate that is commonly used in normal concrete work is between 1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb/ft3)

Bulk Density of Sand

The approximate bulk density of fine aggregate that is normally used to make concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3)

Density of Crushed Sand

M sand or crush sand is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in construction and the density of M or crush sand is 1750 kg/m3, specific gravity and F. M. is found to be 2.73 and 4.66 respectively.

Coarse Aggregate Density

The density of coarse aggregate used in concrete lies between 2.4 – 2.9 with a similar particle density about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).

Density of Concrete

The Concrete Density varies but is around 2,400 kilograms per cubic metre (150 lb/cu ft).

Density of Concrete Kn/m3

Concrete density is about 2400 Kn/m3 for unreinforced concrete.

Density of Concrete g/cm3

Concrete density is around 2.4 g/cm3. It depends on the density of concrete materials used.

Density of Concrete in Kg/ft3

Concrete density is around 68.03 kg/ft3 and 150 lb/ft3 for unreinfroced concrte.

Density of Concrete in Kg/m

As for concrete itself, the concrete density is about 2,400 Kg/m, or 145 lb/ft3

Density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot

The normal concrete density is about 145 lbs. per cubic foot

Density Calculation Steps

1. Weigh the container with the concrete (2) – record value to the nearest tenth of a pound.
2. Subtract the empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)
3. Divide the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) = density, or fresh unit weight.

Fine Sand Density

2082 kg/m3
The density of fine sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

Density of M sand

M sand: Manufactured sand was used as a partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of Manufactured sand was 1.75 kg/m³, specific gravity and F. M. was found to be 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.

Density of River Sand in kg/m³

Average river sand density is 1650 kg/m3, it means 1650 kg river sand occupy 1 cubic metre of volume, 1 cubic meter of River sand weight = 1650kg, so 1650kg is weight of 1 cubic meter of river sand.

What is Density of Fine Aggregate?

DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE- 1450 to 2082 kg/m3 
The range of density of fine aggregate between which density of fine aggregate varies is 1450-2082 kg/m3. This wide range of density is dependant on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, wet-packed, and dry-packed.

What is Density of Cement?

Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg/m3 or 14.4KN/m3 according to standards. The density mentioned in the above two units is used worldwide.

What is Bulk Density of Aggregate?

It can be defined as the mass of a unit volume of bulk aggregate material. This includes the volume of the individual particles of aggregate and also the volume of the voids between them. The value in lb / ft3 is 75-110 lb / ft3.

What is the value of Coarse Aggregate Density?

Many of the coarse aggregates possess a relative density in a range of 2.4 – 2.9 with a particle density of about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).

How to calculate density of concrete?

Follow the following steps,
1. Measure the weight of the empty container(1)
2. Pour the concrete into a container and then measure the weight of the container with concrete(2)
3. Next we need to subtract empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)
4. Further dividing the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) will give us the density of concrete.

What is Density of Concrete?

The density of concrete is different for PCC and RCC.
As compared to PCC, RCC has a higher value of density because of the reinforced steel.
Density of PCC= 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3
Density of RCC= 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3

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