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**Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate**

**Density is mass per unit volume **of a substance i.e. unit weight of that respective substance. Density is denoted in a symbolic form called **line (p)**. It states the **degree of compactness** of material, the higher the density of substance more compacted the material is.

Unit of density is** kg / m3 **or **lb / ft3**. However it can be determined as,

**p = m/V = 1/v**, Where,

- p = density [kg / m3] or [slugs / ft3]
- m = mass [kg] or [slugs]
- V = volume [m3] or [ft3]
- v = specific volume [m3 / kg] or [ft3 / slug]

*Note: 1 kg / m3 = 0.624 lb / ft3*

**Density of Cement**

Much research has been done to know the **density of concrete** in order to increase its **strength **and **durability**. In this process density of cement has got less concern.

However, **Cement **being a **binder **in concrete, knowing its density will be very useful to change the **characteristics **of concrete. Cement has the density of or should have the density of **1440kg /m3 **according to **standards.**

**Read More: Specific Gravity Test of Cement – Procedure, Result**

### Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1

Cement Types | Density in Kg/m^{3} | Density in KN/m^{3} |

Lime Mortar | 1600-1840 | 16-18 |

Ordinary Cemen | 1440 | 14.4 |

PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) | 2400 | 24 |

Pitch | 1010 | 10.1 |

**Sand Density**

Near about **35% volume** of the concrete is comprised of sand. For concrete to be of **good quality** it should be produced by careful mixing of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, and **admixtures **as needed in order to obtain** optimum quality and economy**.

**Natural sand** i.e. locally available **River sand** having a bulk density of **1.71 kg/m3 **was used for the construction** (specific gravity is 2.65)**. This sand has the** Fineness modulus of 5.24.**

Alternative to Natural Sand is** **Manufactured Sand; **M-Sand** was used as having the bulk density of **1.75kg/m3** with specific gravity and **fineness modulus** around** 2.73** and **4.66**, respectively.

Densities of various sands are listed below,

**Loose sand**has a density of**1442 kg / m3**as it is a dry form of sand.**Dry sand**itself has a density of**1602 kg / m3**. This sand is obtained in its**undisturbed**natural form, where it has been partially compacted by environmental factors.**Packed sand**is known to have a density of around**1682 kg / m3**. It is the Sand that is packed**manually**or**mechanically**.**Wet sand**has a density of 1922 kg / m3 whereas2082 kg / m3of density.*Wet packed sand has*

**Aggregate Density**

**Aggregates **are clustered inert granular materials of **non-metallic substances **such as **sand, gravel, **or **crushed stone** obtained in the form of particles and processed, along with water and **Portland cement**, to form an essential ingredient called **concrete**.

Aggregates Are of Two Types-

**Fine aggregate****Coarse aggregate**

**Fine aggregate** is basically **natural sand**, which is processed by washing and sieving in order to remove particles of **unwanted sizes**. To obtain a **good quality** of fine aggregates it should be free from all particles above **5mm**.

**Coarse aggregate** is a type of **gravel**, which is crushed, washed, and sieved to a particular size from** 5 to 50 mm.** The prepared mixture of **fine **and **coarse aggregate** is **more expensive** than the natural all-in aggregate as it has undergone further processing.

The basic of the basic reason for use of mixed** fine and coarse aggregate** is that to combine them in the correct proportions. The chance of forming voids is reduced to a great extent.

**Bulk Density of Aggregate**

**Bulk Density** of aggregate can be explained as Mass or Weight of the selected aggregate required with **specific unit volume** to fill a container.

Hence**,**

**Bulk density = Mass / volume**

It can also be explained as** if the volume of aggregate is one unit, then its Bulk density = Mass.**

**Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3**.

**1200-1750 kg/m3** (75-110 lb / ft3) is the value specified according to standards apparent density of the **aggregate **that is commonly used. The **standard test method **commonly used to determine the apparent density of aggregates is presented in the **ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) standard**.

**The Relative Density of Aggregate**

The relative density i.e. specific gravity is the **ratio between its Mass and the Mass of an equal volume of water**.

Therefore, **Relative density = Mass of the aggregate / Mass with an equal volume of water**

Commonly used aggregates have an approximately relative density between **2.4-2.9** with a respective particle density (Mass) of **2400-2900 kg m3** (150-181 lb / ft3).

**Read More: Difference Between Cement and Concrete |Concrete Vs Cement | What Is Cement Concrete**

**The Density of Building Materials As Per IS 875 Part-1**

**Density of Civil Martials**

Construction Materials | Density (Kg /m3) | Density (lb/ft3) | Density (Kn /m3) |

Concrete (PCC) | 2400 | 149.8 | 24 |

Concrete (RCC) | 2500 | 156 | 25 |

Cement | 1440 | 89.8 | 14.4 |

Rapid Hardening Cement | 1280 | 79.87 | 12.8 |

Ordinary Cement | 1440 | 89.87 | 14.4 |

Sandstone | 2000 | 124.8 | 20 |

Sludge | 2100 | 131 | 21 |

African Mahogany | 495-850 | 31-53 | 4.95-8.5 |

Willow Wood | 420 | 26.2 | 4.2 |

Aspen | 420 | 26.2 | 4.2 |

Cedar | 380 | 23.7 | 3.8 |

Pine | 370-530 | 23-33 | 3.7-5.3 |

Bamboo | 300-400 | 18.7-25 | 3.0-4.0 |

Ferry | 170 | 10.6 | 1.7 |

Saline Water | 1025 | 63.96 | 10.25 |

Water | 1000 | 63.43 | 10 |

African mahogany | 495-850 | 31-35 | 4.95-8.5 |

Honduras mahogany | 545 | 34 | 5.45 |

American redwood | 450 | 28 | 4.5 |

European redwood | 510 | 31.8 | 5.1 |

Fir (staka) | 450 | 28 | 4.5 |

Fir(Canadian) | 450 | 28 | 4.5 |

Aphromosia | 7.05 | ||

apple | 660-830 | 1.2-51.8 | 6.6-8.3 |

Gray (black) | 540 | 33.7 | 5.4 |

Gray (white) | 670 | 41.8 | 6.7 |

Birch | 670 | 41.8 | 6.7 |

Ebony | 960-1120 | 59.9-69.9 | 9.6-11.20 |

Elm | 600-815 | 37.4-50.8 | 6.0-8.15 |

Iroko | 655 | 40.9 | 6.55 |

Larch | 590 | 36.8 | 5.9 |

Maple | 755 | 47.1 | 7.55 |

Carvalho | 590-930 | 36.8-58 | 5.9-9.30 |

Teak | 630 | 9.3 | 6.3 |

Sycanmore | 590 | 36.8 | 5.9 |

Lignum vitae | 1280-1370 | 79.9-85.5 | 12.80-13.70 |

Sandy Soil | 1800 | 112.3 | 18 |

Clay Soil | 1900 | 118.6 | 19 |

Gravel soil | 2000 | 124.6 | 20 |

Chalk | 2100 | 131 | 21 |

Shale | 2500 | 156 | 25 |

Sedimentary rocks | 2600 | 162.3 | 26 |

Metamorphic rocks | 2700 | 168.5 | 27 |

Igneous (felsic) rock | 2700 | 168.8 | 27 |

Igneous(mafic) rock | 3000 | 182.7 | 30 |

Bricks | 1500-1800 | 93.6-112.3 | 15-18 |

Asphalt | 721 | 45 | 7.21 |

Lima | 640 | 39.9 | 6.4 |

Cement mortar | 2080 | 129.8 | 20.8 |

Lime mortar | 1760 | 109.8 | 17.6 |

Steel | 7850 | 490 | 78.5 |

Stainless steel | 7480-8000 | 766.9-499.4 | 74.8-80 |

Aluminium | 2739 | 170.9 | 23.79 |

Magnesium | 1783 | 108.3 | 17.34 |

Cobalt | 8746 | 545.9 | 87.46 |

Nickel | 8908 | 556.1 | 89.08 |

Tin | 7280 | 454.4 | 71.35 |

Lead | 1134 | 707.9 | 113.4 |

Zinc | 7135 | 445.4 | 71.35 |

Cast iron | 7208 | 449.9 | 72.08 |

Copper | 8940 | 558.1 | 89.4 |

Iron | 7850 | 490 | 78.5 |

Glass | 2850 | 161 | 25.8 |

Bitumen | 1040 | 64.890 | 10.4 |

Brick Dust | 1010 | 63.024 | 10.1 |

Clay Soil | 1900 | 118.56 | 19 |

Earth (Dry) | 1410-1840 | 87.98-114.82 | 14.10-18.40 |

Earth (Moist) | 1600-2000 | 99.84-124.8 | 16.00-20.00 |

Fire Bricks | 2400 | 149.76 | 24 |

Granite Stone | 2400-2690 | 149.76-167.85 | 24-26.90 |

Gypsum Mortar | 1200 | 74.88 | 12 |

Gypsum Powder | 1410-1760 | 87.98-109.82 | 14.10-17.60 |

Ice | 920 | 57.41 | 9.2 |

Plane Cement Concrete | 2400 | 149.8 | 24 |

RCC | 2500 | 149.8 | 24 |

Rubber | 1300 | 81.12 | 13 |

Sal Wood | 865 | 53.98 | 8.65 |

Sand (Dry) | 1540-1600 | 96.09-99.84 | 15.40-16 |

Sand (Wet) | 1760-2000 | 109.82-124.80 | 17.6-20.00 |

Stone Ballast | 1720 | 107.33 | 17.2 |

Stone Chips | 1600-1920 | 99.84-119.81 | 16.00-19.20 |

**Density of RCC**

**Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)** is to increases the **tensile strength **of concrete. Concrete is good in **compression **but weak in **tension**, hence in order to provide the tensile strength to concrete, **mild steel bars** are reinforced within concrete.

The density of** RCC **is kept high in order to acquire the adequate strength of the **concrete**. Since **density **is measure with respect to the **compactness **of material, **RCC **needs to be well compacted without any **void **remains.

Density of RCC is **2500** **kg/m3** or **25 KN/m3**, as per specified by the standards.

**Density of PCC**

Factors affecting the density of concrete are **aggregate density, air content, water, **and **cement content **as influenced by the maximum aggregate size. Concrete has a tendency to provide a large diversity of unit weights.

Not much differing from the RCC, the density of Portland Cement Concrete **(PCC)** is **2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3**. The compactness of PCC defined by** 24KN/m3** of density makes PCC be used as a foundation** cement concrete**.

In the above table** Density of PCC** is mentioned in various units.

**Read More: What Is PPC Cement | PCC Full-Form | Difference Between OPC and PPC Cement**

## FAQs: Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate

### Density of Fine Aggregate

**The density of sand (fine aggregate) **is ranging between **1450 – 2082 kg/m3** depending on different conditions like** wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.**

### Density of Coarse Aggregate

**The density of coarse sand** is ranging between 1**450 – 2082 kg/m3 **depending on different conditions like **wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.**

### Density of Cement

**2.8 g/cm³** (gram per cubic centimetre)

### Density of Cement in kg/m3

**Cement** Density measured in **Kg/m3 (kilograms/cubic meter), **density is the ratio of mass to volume. So the **density of cement in kg/m3 is 1440,** in another word, **1440 kg/m3 is the density of cement.**

### Density of Sand

**1680 kg/m ^{3}**The approximate bulk density of sand that used to make concrete is between

**1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3)**. Here, the standard test method to determine the

**bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19).**

### Bulk Density of Aggregate

The **Unit weight** or** bulk density of aggregate** is the** mass or weight of the aggregate** required to fill a container of a **specified unit volume.** The approximate **unit weight of aggregate** that is commonly used in normal concrete work is between **1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb/ft3)**

### Bulk Density of Sand

The approximate bulk density of fine aggregate that is normally used to make concrete is between** 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3)**

### Density of Crushed Sand

**M sand or crush sand** is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in construction and the density of M or crush sand is **1750 kg/m3**, specific gravity and **F. M.** is found to be **2.73 and 4.66 respectively.**

### Coarse Aggregate Density

The **density of coarse aggregate** used in concrete lies between **2.4 – 2.9** with a similar particle density about** 2400-2900 Kg/m ^{3} (150-181 lb/ft^{3}).**

### Density of Concrete

The Concrete Density varies but is around** 2,400 kilograms per cubic metre (150 lb/cu ft).**

### Density of Concrete Kn/m3

Concrete density is about 2400 Kn/m3 for unreinforced concrete.

### Density of Concrete g/cm3

**Concrete density is around 2.4 g/cm3.** It depends on the density of concrete materials used.

### Density of Concrete in Kg/ft3

**Concrete density is around 68.03 kg/ft3 and 150 lb/ft3** for unreinfroced concrte.

### Density of Concrete in Kg/m^{3 }

As for concrete itself, the **concrete density **is about **2,400 Kg/m ^{3 }, or 145 lb/ft3**

### Density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot

The normal **concrete density** is about **145 lbs. per cubic foot**

**Density Calculation Steps**

1. Weigh the container with the concrete (2) – record value to the nearest tenth of a pound.

2. Subtract the empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)

3. Divide the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) = density, or fresh unit weight.

### Fine Sand Density

2082 kg/m3

The density of fine sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

### Density of M sand

**M sand: Manufactured sand was used as a **partial replacement of fine aggregate. The **bulk density of Manufactured sand was 1.75 kg/m³**, specific gravity and** F. M.** was found to be **2.73 and 4.66, respectively.**

### Density of River Sand in kg/m³

Average **river sand density** is 1650 **kg**/**m3**, it means 1650 **kg river sand** occupy 1 cubic metre of volume, 1 cubic meter of **River sand** weight = **1650kg, so 1650kg is weight of 1 cubic meter of river sand.**

**What is Density of Fine Aggregate?**

**DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE- 1450 to 2082 kg/m ^{3}**

The range of density of fine aggregate between which density of fine aggregate varies is

**1450-2082 kg/m3**. This wide range of density is dependant on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, wet-packed, and dry-packed.

**What is Density of Cement?**

**DENSITY OF CEMENT- 1440 kg/m3**Cement has the density of or should have the density of

**1440kg/m3**or

**14.4KN/m3**according to

**standards.**The density mentioned in the above two units is used worldwide.

**What is** **Bulk Density of Aggregate**?

**What is**

**Bulk Density of Aggregate**?

It can be defined as the** mass of a unit volume of bulk aggregate** material. This includes the volume of the individual** particles of aggregate **and also the volume of the voids between them. The value in **lb / ft3 is 75-110 lb / ft3.**

### What is the value of Coarse Aggregate Density?

**COARSE AGGREGATE DENSITY- 2400-2900 Kg/m3**Many of the

**coarse aggregates possess a relative density**in a range of 2.4 – 2.9 with a particle density of about 2

**400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).**

### How to calculate density of concrete?

Follow the following steps,

1. Measure the weight of the empty container(1)

2. Pour the concrete into a container and then measure the weight of the container with concrete(2)

3. Next we need to subtract empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)

4. Further dividing the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) will give us the density of concrete.

**What is Density of Concrete?**

The density of concrete is different for PCC and RCC.

As compared to PCC, RCC has a higher value of density because of the reinforced steel.

Density of PCC= **2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3**

Density of RCC= **2500** **kg/m3** **or 25 KN/m3**

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