Density Of Cement, Sand, And Aggregate
Density is mass per unit volume of a substance i.e. unit weight of that respective substance. Density is denoted in a symbolic form called line (p). It states the degree of compactness of material, the higher the density of substance more compacted the material is.
Unit of density is kg / m3 or lb / ft3. However it can be determined as,
p = m/V = 1/v, Where,
- p = density [kg / m3] or [slugs / ft3]
- m = mass [kg] or [slugs]
- V = volume [m3] or [ft3]
- v = specific volume [m3 / kg] or [ft3 / slug]
Note: 1 kg / m3 = 0.624 lb / ft3
Density of Cement
Much research has been done to know the density of concrete in order to increase its strength and durability. In this process density of cement has got less concern.
However, Cement being a binder in concrete, knowing its density will be very useful to change the characteristics of concrete. Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg /m3 according to standards.
Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1
|Cement Types||Density in Kg/m3||Density in KN/m3|
|PCC (Plain Cement Concrete)||2400||24|
Near about 35% volume of the concrete is comprised of sand. For concrete to be of good quality it should be produced by careful mixing of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, and admixtures as needed in order to obtain optimum quality and economy.
Natural sand i.e. locally available River sand having a bulk density of 1.71 kg/m3 was used for the construction (specific gravity is 2.65). This sand has the Fineness modulus of 5.24.
Alternative to Natural Sand is Manufactured Sand; M-Sand was used as having the bulk density of 1.75kg/m3 with specific gravity and fineness modulus around 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.
Densities of various sands are listed below,
- Loose sand has a density of 1442 kg / m3 as it is a dry form of sand.
- Dry sand itself has a density of 1602 kg / m3. This sand is obtained in its undisturbed natural form, where it has been partially compacted by environmental factors.
- Packed sand is known to have a density of around 1682 kg / m3. It is the Sand that is packed manually or mechanically.
- Wet sand has a density of 1922 kg / m3 whereas Wet packed sand has 2082 kg / m3of density.
Aggregates are clustered inert granular materials of non-metallic substances such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone obtained in the form of particles and processed, along with water and Portland cement, to form an essential ingredient called concrete.
Aggregates Are of Two Types-
- Fine aggregate
- Coarse aggregate
Fine aggregate is basically natural sand, which is processed by washing and sieving in order to remove particles of unwanted sizes. To obtain a good quality of fine aggregates it should be free from all particles above 5mm.
Coarse aggregate is a type of gravel, which is crushed, washed, and sieved to a particular size from 5 to 50 mm. The prepared mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is more expensive than the natural all-in aggregate as it has undergone further processing.
The basic of the basic reason for use of mixed fine and coarse aggregate is that to combine them in the correct proportions. The chance of forming voids is reduced to a great extent.
Bulk Density of Aggregate
Bulk Density of aggregate can be explained as Mass or Weight of the selected aggregate required with specific unit volume to fill a container.
Bulk density = Mass / volume
It can also be explained as if the volume of aggregate is one unit, then its Bulk density = Mass.
Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.
1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb / ft3) is the value specified according to standards apparent density of the aggregate that is commonly used. The standard test method commonly used to determine the apparent density of aggregates is presented in the ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) standard.
The Relative Density of Aggregate
The relative density i.e. specific gravity is the ratio between its Mass and the Mass of an equal volume of water.
Therefore, Relative density = Mass of the aggregate / Mass with an equal volume of water
Commonly used aggregates have an approximately relative density between 2.4-2.9 with a respective particle density (Mass) of 2400-2900 kg m3 (150-181 lb / ft3).
The Density of Building Materials As Per IS 875 Part-1
Density of Civil Martials
|Construction Materials||Density (Kg /m3)||Density (lb/ft3)||Density (Kn /m3)|
|Rapid Hardening Cement||1280||79.87||12.8|
|Igneous (felsic) rock||2700||168.8||27|
|Plane Cement Concrete||2400||149.8||24|
Density of RCC
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is to increases the tensile strength of concrete. Concrete is good in compression but weak in tension, hence in order to provide the tensile strength to concrete, mild steel bars are reinforced within concrete.
The density of RCC is kept high in order to acquire the adequate strength of the concrete. Since density is measure with respect to the compactness of material, RCC needs to be well compacted without any void remains.
Density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3, as per specified by the standards.
Density of PCC
Factors affecting the density of concrete are aggregate density, air content, water, and cement content as influenced by the maximum aggregate size. Concrete has a tendency to provide a large diversity of unit weights.
Not much differing from the RCC, the density of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) is 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3. The compactness of PCC defined by 24KN/m3 of density makes PCC be used as a foundation cement concrete.
In the above table Density of PCC is mentioned in various units.
FAQs: Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate
Density of Fine Aggregate
The density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.
Density of Coarse Aggregate
The density of coarse sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.
Density of Cement
2.8 g/cm³ (gram per cubic centimetre)
Density of Cement in kg/m3
Cement Density measured in Kg/m3 (kilograms/cubic meter), density is the ratio of mass to volume. So the density of cement in kg/m3 is 1440, in another word, 1440 kg/m3 is the density of cement.
Density of Sand
The approximate bulk density of sand that used to make concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3). Here, the standard test method to determine the bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19).
Bulk Density of Aggregate
The Unit weight or bulk density of aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate required to fill a container of a specified unit volume. The approximate unit weight of aggregate that is commonly used in normal concrete work is between 1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb/ft3)
Bulk Density of Sand
The approximate bulk density of fine aggregate that is normally used to make concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3)
Density of Crushed Sand
M sand or crush sand is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in construction and the density of M or crush sand is 1750 kg/m3, specific gravity and F. M. is found to be 2.73 and 4.66 respectively.
Coarse Aggregate Density
The density of coarse aggregate used in concrete lies between 2.4 – 2.9 with a similar particle density about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).
Density of Concrete
The Concrete Density varies but is around 2,400 kilograms per cubic metre (150 lb/cu ft).
Density of Concrete Kn/m3
Concrete density is about 2400 Kn/m3 for unreinforced concrete.
Density of Concrete g/cm3
Concrete density is around 2.4 g/cm3. It depends on the density of concrete materials used.
Density of Concrete in Kg/ft3
Concrete density is around 68.03 kg/ft3 and 150 lb/ft3 for unreinfroced concrte.
Density of Concrete in Kg/m3
As for concrete itself, the concrete density is about 2,400 Kg/m3 , or 145 lb/ft3
Density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot
The normal concrete density is about 145 lbs. per cubic foot
Density Calculation Steps
1. Weigh the container with the concrete (2) – record value to the nearest tenth of a pound.
2. Subtract the empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)
3. Divide the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) = density, or fresh unit weight.
Fine Sand Density
The density of fine sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.
Density of M sand
M sand: Manufactured sand was used as a partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of Manufactured sand was 1.75 kg/m³, specific gravity and F. M. was found to be 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.
Density of River Sand in kg/m³
Average river sand density is 1650 kg/m3, it means 1650 kg river sand occupy 1 cubic metre of volume, 1 cubic meter of River sand weight = 1650kg, so 1650kg is weight of 1 cubic meter of river sand.
What is Density of Fine Aggregate?
DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE- 1450 to 2082 kg/m3
The range of density of fine aggregate between which density of fine aggregate varies is 1450-2082 kg/m3. This wide range of density is dependant on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, wet-packed, and dry-packed.
What is Density of Cement?
DENSITY OF CEMENT- 1440 kg/m3
Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg/m3 or 14.4KN/m3 according to standards. The density mentioned in the above two units is used worldwide.
What is Bulk Density of Aggregate?
It can be defined as the mass of a unit volume of bulk aggregate material. This includes the volume of the individual particles of aggregate and also the volume of the voids between them. The value in lb / ft3 is 75-110 lb / ft3.
What is the value of Coarse Aggregate Density?
COARSE AGGREGATE DENSITY- 2400-2900 Kg/m3
Many of the coarse aggregates possess a relative density in a range of 2.4 – 2.9 with a particle density of about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).
How to calculate density of concrete?
Follow the following steps,
1. Measure the weight of the empty container(1)
2. Pour the concrete into a container and then measure the weight of the container with concrete(2)
3. Next we need to subtract empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)
4. Further dividing the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) will give us the density of concrete.
What is Density of Concrete?
The density of concrete is different for PCC and RCC.
As compared to PCC, RCC has a higher value of density because of the reinforced steel.
Density of PCC= 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3
Density of RCC= 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3
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