What Is Precipitation?
Atmospheric Water Vapor is condensed and product which is in the form of Rainfall, Snowfall, Dew and frost is fall on the earth surface under gravitational force is called as Precipitation.
There are 3 types of precipitation that occur on earth are Cyclonic Precipitation, Convective Precipitation, and Orographic Precipitation.
The following things are must for Precipitation,
- Moisture is present in the atmosphere
- Sufficient nuclei are present for condensation
- Weather conditions are good for the Condensation process
- The product vapour water is must reach the surface of the earth.
Diffewrent Precipitation Types
Following are the three basic types of precipitation,
- Cyclonic Rainfall
- Convective Rainfall
- Orographic Rainfall
1. Cyclonic Precipitation
Cyclonic rainfall is occurs when air mass rise up due to pressure difference. When there is the formation of a low-pressure area, air from the other surrounding spaces flows to less pressure zone.
It is phenomenon forces warm and colder air to meet. As warm air is lighter in comparison to colder ones it rises above the colder air. Then the warmer air starts cooling beyond saturation point which results in heavy rain. Such rainfall is called Cyclonic Rainfall.
The cyclonic rainfall itself is categorized into two types,
- Frontal Rainfall
- Non-Frontal Rainfall
The collision of two different air masses, due to differences in temperature and densities, results in condensation and precipitation at the contact surface. This contact surface is named as Frontal Zone, whereas the precipitation occurring in that zone is called Frontal Rainfall.
If cold air driving out warm air then the front is called Cold Front and if the Warm nature masses of air overlap the superior cold air mass, it can be known as ‘Warm Front. Similarly Stationary Front is the result of both air masses are move towards an area of low pressure in a simultaneous way.
Intense Precipitation is the result of the Cold Front spread over a shorter area as compared to warm nature front which is cover a larger area but has a low intensity of precipitation.
Non Frontal Rainfall
This phenomenon occurs when the moving mass of cold air meets the stationary warm nature of air mass. As a result of which the lighter warm air rises up and reaches the saturation point.
The saturation point of lighter warm air causes precipitation known as Non-Frontal Precipitation. It is the type of Cyclonic Precipitation.
This process differs from Frontal Precipitation in some sense hence categorized as the different type of Cyclonic Precipitation.
2. Convective Rainfall
Convective Precipitation or Convectional Rainfall generally occurs in equatorial areas. The surface areas in these zones get heated frequently and constantly because of the sun’s heat.
Which in turn the air near the surface gets hated and spreads. Heating also makes the air lighter hence it tends to rise up. The air starts cooling as it moves up and reaches its saturation limit, resulting in precipitation.
This precipitation is called Convention Precipitation, which occurs in the tropics that too on a hot day. Rising vertical velocities of air currents are dangeous to aircraft. Its intensity ranges from light showers to cloud bursts.
3. Orographic Precipitation
Orographic Precipitation occurs when the moist mass of air, strikes natural barriers of the topographyarea. These barriers are like mountains, hills, etc which causes the air to rise up, condense and then precipitate. Hence mountains are the sites of higher precipitation than plain lands.
The precipitation is concentrated on side of windward, the side where striking occurs. Whereas, the side of the leeward gets a very little amount of rain, which results in the formation of a rain shadow region.
Forms of Precipitation
The following are the Precipitation forms,
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Rain is the major source of precipitation in the region of india. Rainfall is the term used for precipitation in form of the water drops.
In rainfall, the water drop size is about 0.5mm and less than the 6mm. The Range of the Drop is Between 0.5mm to 6mm.
The Rainfall is classified based on it’s intensity:-
I. Light rain
The intensity of the rain trace to 2.5mm/hr. then is called the Light Rain.
II. Moderate Rain
The intensity is between 2.5mm/hr. to 7.5mm/hr. is called the Moderate Rain.
III. Heavy Rain
The intensity is greater than 7.5mm/hr. is call the Heavy Rain.
Snow is the second major source of precipitation. Snow generally consists of the ice crystal. Ice crystals are combined together and form flakes.
The density of the Fresh Snow is varying between 0.06-0.15 gm/Cubic cm. The average density of the snow is Generally considered to be 0.1gm/Cubic cm.
In India, Himalayan is only region where the snow is fall.
Numbers of water droplets are fall in the form of fine sprinkles is know as the Drizzle.
The Size of the droplets is less than 0.5mm and the intensity of the Droplets is less than 1mm/hr.
If the temperature of the ground is around 0* Celsius and the rain or the drizzle are come to contact to ground the water droplets are freeze and coating with ice is known as Glaze.
It is also known as Freezing Rain.
The Rainfall is pass through the sub-freezing temperature of the atmosphere the raindrops are freezing in form of transparent grains is known as sleet.
When the Snow is falling in the form of irregular pellets and a lump of the ice is known as Hail. The size of the Hail is more than 8mm. Generally in Violent thunderstorms, Hails occurred.
Measurement of Precipitation
Rainfall is generally measured in the form of depth. Rainfall is calculated in the form of how much water depth is falls on the earth’s area. Thus if the 1cm of rainfall falls over the catchment of 1sq.km it represents that the volume of water is 100000 cubic meters.
The Instrument which is used to collect and measure the Rainfall is Known as Rain Gauge. Rain gauge is consisted one open cylinder vessel to catch the rainfall in it. The exposure condition of the rain gauge affects the rainfall catch.
For Accurate Data collection the rain gauge is set in a standard-setting position in the following manner:-
- Rain gauge is set on the Level and open ground and perfect horizontal position.
- Rain gauge is Put as near to the ground to reduce the wind effect but also prevent splashing and flooding.
- Rain gauge is put in the open fenced area of 5.5m * 5.5m.
There are two types of Raines
- Non-recording Rain gauge
- Recording Rain gauge
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1. Non-recording Rain gauge
Symon’s Rain gauge is the extensively used Non-recording Rain gauge in India. This type of rain gauge has a 12.7cm diameter to collect the rainfall which is connected with a funnel.
The rim of this collector is set in a horizontal plane at a height of 30.5cm above the ground. Rainfall is caught through the funnel in receiving vessel. Both funnel and vessel are mounted in a metallic container.
The water is collecting in the vessel is measure with a suitable graduated measuring glass with high accuracy of 0.1mm. The rainfall is measured at 8:30 am (IST) and record as everyday rainfall. The capacity of Symon’s rain gauge is 10cm only so in the heavy rainfall condition the rainfall is measure more frequently and entered.
2. Recording Rain Gauges
Recording rain gauges are used for continuous plots of the rainfall against time with valuable data of intensity and duration of rainfall.
Types of Recording Rain Gauge
- Tipping Bucket type
- Weighing Bucket type
- Natural Syphon type
- Telemetering Rain gauge
- Radar Measurement of Rainfall
1. Tipping Bucket Type
Tipping Bucket type of rain gauge is adopted for use by the US weather Bureau. The size of the rain gauge is 30.5cm. The rainfall is caught in the funnel and falls on one of the pairs of small buckets.
This pair of the bucket is set so systematically so that when in one bucket of 0.25mm of rainfall collects it tip down and another one is brought in position. After tipping the bucket the water is collected in a storage can. The electrically driven pen traces a record on a Clockwork-driven chart with each tipping.
The water which is store in the can is also measured at regular intervals to get total rainfall and also for the check. The tipping bucket gives the data which is in form of the intensity of rainfall.
2. Weighing Bucket Type
In weighing Bucket type of rain gauge the rainfall was caught from the funnel and it empty in the bucket which mounted on a weighing scale. The weighing bucket is recorded on a clock-work-driven chart. Weighing bucket-type rain gauge gives the mass curve of rainfall. (Intensity and Duration).
How is precipitation important to weather?
Importance of Precipitation to Weather:
Precipitation fulfills the requirement of water for all living beings on earth. Precipitation is itself an important part of the water cycle. Even a slight disturbance in this system can affect the ecological cycle adversely, stating the importance of precipitation to weather.
What is precipitation in hydrology?
PRECIPITATION IN HYDROLOGY
In Hydrology, Precipitation is a word used for denoting moisture forms reaching the earth’s surface after originating from the clouds. It is the most important part of the rainfall system and hydrological cycles, having the significance of running the environmental parameters.
What are types of precipitation?
Precipitation types are,
1. Cyclonic Precipitation.
2. Convective Precipitation.
3. Orographic Precipitation.
The collision of two different air masses, due to contrasting densities and temperatures, results in condensation and precipitation at the surface of contact. This surface of contact is named as Front or Frontal Zone, whereas the precipitation occurring in that zone is called Frontal Precipitation.
phenomenon forces warm and colder air to meet. As warm air is lighter in comparison to colder ones it rises above the colder air. Then the warmer air starts cooling beyond saturation point which results in heavy rain. Such rainfall is called Cyclonic Rainfall.
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