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**What Is Density**

The **density **of the **material **is defined as **mass **or **weight per unit volume **or it is a **quantitative representation **of the **amount **of mass **contained per unit volume**. The density standard unit is the **kilogram per meter cubed **(kg/m3 or lb/ft^{3}).

De**nsity** is also **represented **in **grams per cubic centimeter** (gm/cm^{3}). The **standard drinking **water has a **density of 1 gm/cm ^{3} **at a 4°-degree

**temperature**.

Which is **equal to 1 kg/1000 cm ^{3}**. The

**conversation**of

**kg/m**is done by just multiplying with

^{3}to gm/cm^{3}**0.001**. Similarly,

**gm/cm**is

^{3}**converted**into

**kg/m**by

^{3}**multiplying by 1000.**

Sometimes, **density **is also **represented **in **non-conversion unit** metric **tons per cubic meter,** **pounds per cubic inch**, and **pounds per cubic foot. **

## Bulk Density of Mortar

**Depending upon the dry bulk density of mortar, they are classified into two categories,**

**Heavy Mortar:**It is**prepared**from**heavy quartz**material. The**Heavy Mortar**has a bulk**density**of more than 1500 kg/m3.- Lightweight Mortar: It is prepared from
**lightweight sand**. The**lightweight mortar**has a**bulk density**of less than**1500 kg/m**.^{3}

**Density of Cement**

**Cement** is **one **of the **major ingredients of concrete mix.** **Cement **work as **binding material** and filler material in **concrete** which binds all **aggregate**,** and sand together. **There are mainly **two types of cement **used in **construction **

1. **OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)**

**2. PCC (Pozzonala Portland Cement)**

The **common materials **used for** cement manufacturing** are shells, **limestone,** and chalk **mixed **with shale,** blast furnace slag**, and **silica **sand.

The **density **of cement is** 1440 kg/m ^{3} **and its

**specific gravity**is around

**3.15.**

**Read More: Specific Gravity Test of Cement – Procedure, Result**

### Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1

Cement Types | Density in Kg/m^{3} | Density in KN/m^{3} |

Lime Mortar | 1600-1840 | 16-18 |

Ordinary Cement | 1440 | 14.4 |

PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) | 2400 | 24 |

Pitch | 1010 | 10.1 |

**Density of RCC**

**Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)** is to increases the **tensile strength **of **concrete**. Concrete is **good **in **compression **but weak in **tension**, hence in order to provide the **tensile **strength to **concrete**, **mild steel bars** are **reinforced **within **concrete**.

The **density **of** RCC **is kept **high **in order to **acquire **the **adequate strength **of the **concrete**. Since **density **is **measured **with **respect **to the **compactness **of **material**, **RCC **needs to be well **compacted **without any **void remains**.

The **density **of **RCC **is **2500** **kg/m3** or **25 KN/m3**, as **specified **by the **standards**.

**Density of PCC**

**Factors affecting **the density of **concrete **are **aggregate density, air content, water, **and **cement content **as **influenced **by the **maximum aggregate **size. **Concrete **has a **tendency **to provide a **large diversity **of unit weights.

Not much **differing **from the **RCC**, the **density **of **Portland Cement Concrete (PCC)** is **2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3**. The **compactness **of PCC defined by** 24KN/m3** of **density **makes **PCC **be used as a **foundation cement concrete**.

**In the above table Density of PCC is mentioned in various units.**

**Sand Density**

About **35% volume** of the **concrete** is **comprised **of **sand**. For **concrete **to be of **good quality** it should be **produced **by careful **mixing **of **cement**, **fine **and **coarse aggregates**, **water**, and **admixtures **as **needed **in order to **obtain optimum quality and economy**.

The **building density **of **natural sand **is 1.71 kg/m^{3} used for **construction **and has a **specific gravity **of around 2.65. **Natural sand **used in **concrete **has an **F. M. value of around 5.24.**

**Alternative **to **Natural Sand **is** Manufactured **Sand; **M-Sand** was **used **as **having **a **bulk density **of **1.75kg/m3** with **specific gravity **and **fineness modulus** around** 2.73** and **4.66**, respectively.

**Densities of various sands are listed below,**

1. **Loose sand **has a **density **of **1442 kg / m3** as it is a **dry form **of **sand**.

2. **Dry sand** **itself **has a **density **of **1602 kg / m3**.

3. **Packed sand** is **known **to have a **density **of **around 1682 kg / m3**.

4. **Wet sand** has a **density** of **1922 kg / m3** whereas **Packed Wet sand has** 2082 kg / m3of density.

**Aggregate Density**

**Aggregate is **one of the **important ingredients **of **construction work **used **along **with **water **and **Portland cement**, to form an **essential **ingredient called **concrete**. **Aggregate **forms the **main **body of **concrete**.

To increase the **bulk density of concrete mix**, coarse **aggregates **are used in **two **markedly **different **sizes—the **bigger **ones **known **to be **coarse aggregate **(grit) and the smaller ones fine**aggregate **(sand).

**Aggregates Are of Two Types-**

**Sand (Fine aggregate)****Gravel**(**Coarse aggregate**)

**Fine aggregate **is nothing but sand used for **construction work**. Sand is of **two **types **natural sand **and **Manufactured sand**.

Fine aggregate particle size **generally **varies between **75 micros to 4.75 mm**. Fine aggregate fills the **void **or **air pocket **left between **aggregate **in concrete.

**Coarse aggregate **is having a **particle **size of **more than 4.75 mm **as per IS. **Coarse aggregate **is used to form a **main body **of **concrete **along with **sand **and **cement **mixed with water in **concrete**.

The **maximum size **of **coarse aggregate **used for concrete **making **is **20 mm**. **Aggregates **used for **construction **must be **chemically **inactive in **nature**.

**Aggregate Bulk Density**

**Bulk density **of **aggregate **is defined as the **weight **or **mass **of **aggregate **per **unit volume**. Weight **aggregate **in a **specified volume **of the **container**.

Hence**,**

**Bulk density = Weight (Mass) / volume**

It can also be **explained **as** if 1 is the volume of aggregate, then its Bulk density = Mass.**

The **standard density **of **aggregate **which is used in **concrete making **is about **1200-1750 kg/m3**.

**Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3**.

**Standard Relative Aggregate Density**

The **standard aggregate** relative **density **can be defined as **mass divided **by an equal **volume **of **liquid **like **water**.

Therefore, **Relative density = Aggregate mass / Weight with the same volume of water**

**Aggregates **used in **general **construction have related density **ranges of **2.4-2.9 with a **weight density **of **2400-2900 kg m3**.

**Read More: Difference Between Cement and Concrete |Concrete Vs Cement | What Is Cement Concrete**

## Artificial Aggregate Density

**Artificial Aggregates **are **Broken bricks**, synthetic aggregates, and **blast furnace slag**. **Broken bricks **also called **brickbat **suitable for mass **concreting work**. but there are not **recommended **to be used for **reinforced concrete**.

**Blast furnace slag **aggregate is the **waste material **from **power plants **prepared from **slow cooling **of the slag followed by **crushing**. These types of **aggregate **are used to **manufacture precast concrete **products.

The **sp**. **gr**. of these **range **between **2–2.8 **and bulk density **1120–1300 kg/m3**.

** Density of Silica Fume **

The **specific gravity of silica fume is 2.20**. The **silica fume **is available as produced in **intensified **form with a **bulk density **of **200-300 kg/m3.**

**Densified **with a **bulk density** of **500-600 kg/m3;** in the form of **micro pellets **with a bulk density of **600-800 kg/m3.**

In** slurry form** with the desired **concentration **(generally with a **density of 1400 kg/m3)**. The other basic **characteristics** are the **specific surface **area of **1500-2000 cm2/g,** standard grade **slurry **pH value of 4.7, **specific gravity of 1.3-1.4,** and dry content of **micro silica** of 48-52 percent.

## Density of Different Construction Materials.

**The building construction materials density table,**

Sr. No. | Materials Name | Density |

1. | Cement | 1440 kg/m^{3} |

2. | Sand or Fine Aggregate | 1450 to 2082 kg/m^{3} |

3. | Bricks | 1600 to 1920 kg/m^{3} |

4. | Steel | 7850 kg/m^{3} |

5. | Coarse aggregate or Gravel | 2850 to 2960 kg/m^{3} |

6. | Water | 1000 kg/m^{3} |

7. | Soil | 1760 kg/m^{3} (Black Cotton Soil) |

8. | Glass | 2530 kg/m^{3} |

9. | Marble Stone | 2620 kg/m^{3} |

10. | Granite Stone | 2460-2800 kg/m^{3} |

11. | Bitumen | 1040 kg/m^{3} |

12. | PCC | 2400 kg/m^{3} |

13. | RCC 2% Steel | 2500 kg/m^{3} |

14. | Cement concrete block(solid) | 1800 kg/m^{3} |

15. | Lime Mortar | 1760 kg/m^{3} |

16. | Lime | 640 kg/m^{3} |

17. | Sal Wood | 990 kg/m^{3} |

18. | Cement Mortar | 2080 kg/m^{3} |

19. | A.C.sheet corrugated | 16 kg/m^{3} |

**Read More: What Is PPC Cement | PCC Full-Form | Difference Between OPC and PPC Cement**

## FAQs: Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate

### The density of Coarse Aggregate

**The coarse aggregate density used for construction is generally between** 1**450 – 2082 kg/m3 ** The density of coarse aggregate varies depending on the source, nature, and condition like wet or dry.

### Density of Cement

The density of cement is content of around 2.8 g/cm³. ASTM standard for measuring cement density (ASTM C188-14) is used **liquid displacement method**

### Cement in kg/m3

The cement density is around 1440 kg/m³.

### Density of Sand

**1680 kg/m ^{3}**The fine aggregate used for used to make concrete has a bulk density is between

**1540-and 1680 kg/m**. Here, the standard test method to determine the

^{3}**bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19).**

### Bulk Density of Sand

The fine aggregate used for used to make concrete has a bulk density is between **1540-1680 kg/m**^{3}

### Density of Concrete

The density of normal concrete is about 2400 kg/m^{3}

### The density of Concrete Kn/m3

Concrete density is about 2400 Kn/m3 for unreinforced concrete.

### The density of Concrete g/cm3

**Concrete density is around 2.4 g/cm3.** It depends on the density of concrete materials used.

### The density of Concrete in Kg/ft3

**Concrete density is around 68.03 kg/ft3 and 150 lb/ft3** for unreinfroced concrte.

### The density of Concrete in Kg/m^{3 }

As for concrete itself, the **concrete density **is about **2,400 Kg/m ^{3}, or 145 lb/ft3**

### The density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot

The normal **concrete density** is about **145 lbs. per cubic foot**

### The density of M sand

The M sand means manufactured sand it is also called artificial sand. M sand has a density of about 1850 kg/m3. Its specific gravity is about 2.56 and F. M. value lies around 3.10.

### River Sand Density in kg/m³

The average river sand density is 1650 kg/m3, it means 1650 kg of river sand occupies 1 cubic meter of volume, 1 cubic meter of River sand weight = 1650kg, so 1650kg is the **weight of 1 cubic meter of river sand.**

**What is the Density of Cement?**

**DENSITY OF CEMENT- 1440 kg/m3**Cement has the density of or should have the density of

**1440kg/m3**or

**14.4KN/m3**according to

**standards.**The density mentioned in the above two units is used worldwide.

**What is the Density of Concrete?**

The density of concrete is different for PCC and RCC.

As compared to PCC, RCC has a higher value of density because of the reinforced steel.

Density of PCC= **2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3**

Density of RCC= **2500** **kg/m3** **or 25 KN/m3**

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Sajid AliGreat post, Thanks for giving this information.

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