What Is Density
The density of the material is defined as mass or weight per unit volume or it is a quantitative representation of the amount of mass contained per unit volume. The density standard unit is the kilogram per meter cubed (kg/m3 or lb/ft3).
Density is also represented in grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cm3). The standard drinking water has a density of 1 gm/cm3 at a 4°-degree temperature.
Which is equal to 1 kg/1000 cm3. The conversation of kg/m3 to gm/cm3 is done by just multiplying with 0.001. Similarly, gm/cm3 is converted into kg/m3 by multiplying by 1000.
Sometimes, density is also represented in non-conversion unit metric tons per cubic meter, pounds per cubic inch, and pounds per cubic foot.
Bulk Density of Mortar
Depending upon the dry bulk density of mortar, they are classified into two categories,
- Heavy Mortar: It is prepared from heavy quartz material. The Heavy Mortar has a bulk density of more than 1500 kg/m3.
- Lightweight Mortar: It is prepared from lightweight sand. The lightweight mortar has a bulk density of less than 1500 kg/m3.
Density of Cement
Cement is one of the major ingredients of concrete mix. Cement work as binding material and filler material in concrete which binds all aggregate, and sand together. There are mainly two types of cement used in construction
1. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)
2. PCC (Pozzonala Portland Cement)
The common materials used for cement manufacturing are shells, limestone, and chalk mixed with shale, blast furnace slag, and silica sand.
The density of cement is 1440 kg/m3 and its specific gravity is around 3.15.
Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1
|Cement Types||Density in Kg/m3||Density in KN/m3|
|PCC (Plain Cement Concrete)||2400||24|
Density of RCC
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is to increases the tensile strength of concrete. Concrete is good in compression but weak in tension, hence in order to provide the tensile strength to concrete, mild steel bars are reinforced within concrete.
The density of RCC is kept high in order to acquire the adequate strength of the concrete. Since density is measured with respect to the compactness of material, RCC needs to be well compacted without any void remains.
The density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3, as specified by the standards.
Density of PCC
Factors affecting the density of concrete are aggregate density, air content, water, and cement content as influenced by the maximum aggregate size. Concrete has a tendency to provide a large diversity of unit weights.
Not much differing from the RCC, the density of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) is 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3. The compactness of PCC defined by 24KN/m3 of density makes PCC be used as a foundation cement concrete.
In the above table Density of PCC is mentioned in various units.
About 35% volume of the concrete is comprised of sand. For concrete to be of good quality it should be produced by careful mixing of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, and admixtures as needed in order to obtain optimum quality and economy.
The building density of natural sand is 1.71 kg/m3 used for construction and has a specific gravity of around 2.65. Natural sand used in concrete has an F. M. value of around 5.24.
Alternative to Natural Sand is Manufactured Sand; M-Sand was used as having a bulk density of 1.75kg/m3 with specific gravity and fineness modulus around 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.
Densities of various sands are listed below,
1. Loose sand has a density of 1442 kg / m3 as it is a dry form of sand.
2. Dry sand itself has a density of 1602 kg / m3.
3. Packed sand is known to have a density of around 1682 kg / m3.
4. Wet sand has a density of 1922 kg / m3 whereas Packed Wet sand has 2082 kg / m3of density.
Aggregate is one of the important ingredients of construction work used along with water and Portland cement, to form an essential ingredient called concrete. Aggregate forms the main body of concrete.
To increase the bulk density of concrete mix, coarse aggregates are used in two markedly different sizes—the bigger ones known to be coarse aggregate (grit) and the smaller ones fine
Aggregates Are of Two Types-
- Sand (Fine aggregate)
- Gravel (Coarse aggregate)
Fine aggregate is nothing but sand used for construction work. Sand is of two types natural sand and Manufactured sand.
Fine aggregate particle size generally varies between 75 micros to 4.75 mm. Fine aggregate fills the void or air pocket left between aggregate in concrete.
Coarse aggregate is having a particle size of more than 4.75 mm as per IS. Coarse aggregate is used to form a main body of concrete along with sand and cement mixed with water in concrete.
The maximum size of coarse aggregate used for concrete making is 20 mm. Aggregates used for construction must be chemically inactive in nature.
Aggregate Bulk Density
Bulk density of aggregate is defined as the weight or mass of aggregate per unit volume. Weight aggregate in a specified volume of the container.
Bulk density = Weight (Mass) / volume
It can also be explained as if 1 is the volume of aggregate, then its Bulk density = Mass.
The standard density of aggregate which is used in concrete making is about 1200-1750 kg/m3.
Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.
Standard Relative Aggregate Density
The standard aggregate relative density can be defined as mass divided by an equal volume of liquid like water.
Therefore, Relative density = Aggregate mass / Weight with the same volume of water
Aggregates used in general construction have related density ranges of 2.4-2.9 with a weight density of 2400-2900 kg m3.
Artificial Aggregate Density
Artificial Aggregates are Broken bricks, synthetic aggregates, and blast furnace slag. Broken bricks also called brickbat suitable for mass concreting work. but there are not recommended to be used for reinforced concrete.
Blast furnace slag aggregate is the waste material from power plants prepared from slow cooling of the slag followed by crushing. These types of aggregate are used to manufacture precast concrete products.
The sp. gr. of these range between 2–2.8 and bulk density 1120–1300 kg/m3.
Density of Silica Fume
The specific gravity of silica fume is 2.20. The silica fume is available as produced in intensified form with a bulk density of 200-300 kg/m3.
Densified with a bulk density of 500-600 kg/m3; in the form of micro pellets with a bulk density of 600-800 kg/m3.
In slurry form with the desired concentration (generally with a density of 1400 kg/m3). The other basic characteristics are the specific surface area of 1500-2000 cm2/g, standard grade slurry pH value of 4.7, specific gravity of 1.3-1.4, and dry content of micro silica of 48-52 percent.
Density of Different Construction Materials.
The building construction materials density table,
|2.||Sand or Fine Aggregate||1450 to 2082 kg/m3|
|3.||Bricks||1600 to 1920 kg/m3|
|5.||Coarse aggregate or Gravel||2850 to 2960 kg/m3|
|7.||Soil||1760 kg/m3 (Black Cotton Soil)|
|9.||Marble Stone||2620 kg/m3|
|10.||Granite Stone||2460-2800 kg/m3|
|13.||RCC 2% Steel||2500 kg/m3|
|14.||Cement concrete block(solid)||1800 kg/m3|
|15.||Lime Mortar||1760 kg/m3|
|17.||Sal Wood||990 kg/m3|
|18.||Cement Mortar||2080 kg/m3|
|19.||A.C.sheet corrugated||16 kg/m3|
FAQs: Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate
The density of Coarse Aggregate
The coarse aggregate density used for construction is generally between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 The density of coarse aggregate varies depending on the source, nature, and condition like wet or dry.
Density of Cement
The density of cement is content of around 2.8 g/cm³. ASTM standard for measuring cement density (ASTM C188-14) is used liquid displacement method
Cement in kg/m3
The cement density is around 1440 kg/m³.
Density of Sand
The fine aggregate used for used to make concrete has a bulk density is between 1540-and 1680 kg/m3. Here, the standard test method to determine the bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19).
Bulk Density of Sand
The fine aggregate used for used to make concrete has a bulk density is between 1540-1680 kg/m3
Density of Concrete
The density of normal concrete is about 2400 kg/m3
The density of Concrete Kn/m3
Concrete density is about 2400 Kn/m3 for unreinforced concrete.
The density of Concrete g/cm3
Concrete density is around 2.4 g/cm3. It depends on the density of concrete materials used.
The density of Concrete in Kg/ft3
Concrete density is around 68.03 kg/ft3 and 150 lb/ft3 for unreinfroced concrte.
The density of Concrete in Kg/m3
As for concrete itself, the concrete density is about 2,400 Kg/m3, or 145 lb/ft3
The density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot
The normal concrete density is about 145 lbs. per cubic foot
The density of M sand
The M sand means manufactured sand it is also called artificial sand. M sand has a density of about 1850 kg/m3. Its specific gravity is about 2.56 and F. M. value lies around 3.10.
River Sand Density in kg/m³
The average river sand density is 1650 kg/m3, it means 1650 kg of river sand occupies 1 cubic meter of volume, 1 cubic meter of River sand weight = 1650kg, so 1650kg is the weight of 1 cubic meter of river sand.
What is the Density of Cement?
DENSITY OF CEMENT- 1440 kg/m3
Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg/m3 or 14.4KN/m3 according to standards. The density mentioned in the above two units is used worldwide.
What is the Density of Concrete?
The density of concrete is different for PCC and RCC.
As compared to PCC, RCC has a higher value of density because of the reinforced steel.
Density of PCC= 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3
Density of RCC= 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3
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