What Is Density
Density is a physical property of a material that refers to its mass per unit volume. The density of a material is often expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) or grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³).
In construction, density is an important property to consider for materials such as cement, sand, aggregate, and steel.
Cement is a binding material used in concrete, mortar, and other construction applications. As mentioned earlier, the density of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which is the most common type of cement used in construction, is around 3.15 g/cm³ or 3,150 kg/m³.
Sand is a commonly used construction material that is used as a fine aggregate in concrete and mortar. The density of sand can vary depending on its composition and moisture content but typically ranges from 1,400 to 1,600 kg/m³ or 1.4 to 1.6 g/cm³.
Aggregate refers to a collection of materials such as crushed stone, gravel, or sand that are used in construction as a coarse aggregate in concrete.
The density of aggregate can also vary depending on its composition, moisture content, and compaction level, but typically ranges from 1,400 to 1,800 kg/m³ or 1.4 to 1.8 g/cm³.
Steel is a commonly used construction material that is used in the reinforcement of concrete structures, as well as in structural steel beams and columns. The density of steel is around 7,850 kg/m³ or 7.85 g/cm³.
Understanding the density of construction materials is important for ensuring that the right amount of material is used for a given project, as well as for estimating the weight and volume of materials needed for construction.
Bulk Density of Mortar
Depending upon the dry bulk density of mortar, they are classified into two categories,
- Heavy Mortar: It is prepared from heavy quartz material. The Heavy Mortar has a bulk density of more than 1500 kg/m3.
- Lightweight Mortar: It is prepared from lightweight sand. The lightweight mortar has a bulk density of less than 1500 kg/m3.
Density of Cement
Cement is one of the major ingredients of concrete mix. Cement work as binding material and filler material in concrete which binds all aggregate, and sand together. There are mainly two types of cement used in construction.
1. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)
2. PCC (Pozzonala Portland Cement)
The common materials used for cement manufacturing are shells, limestone, and chalk mixed with shale, blast furnace slag, and silica sand.
The density of cement is 1440 kg/m3 and its specific gravity is around 3.15.
Cement Bulk Density As Per IS 875 Part-1
|Cement Types||Density in Kg/m3||Density in KN/m3|
|PCC (Plain Cement Concrete)||2400||24|
Density of RCC
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is to increase the tensile strength of concrete. Concrete is good in compression but weak in tension, hence in order to provide tensile strength to concrete, mild steel bars are reinforced within concrete.
The density of RCC is kept high in order to acquire adequate strength of the concrete. Since density is measured with respect to the compactness of material, RCC needs to be well compacted without any void remaining.
The density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 or 25 KN/m3, as specified by the standards.
Density of PCC
Factors affecting the density of concrete are aggregate density, air content, water, and cement content as influenced by the maximum aggregate size. Concrete has a tendency to provide a large diversity of unit weights.
Not much differing from the RCC, the density of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) is 2400kg/m3 or 24KN/m3. The compactness of PCC defined by 24KN/m3 of density makes PCC be used as a foundation cement concrete.
In the above table Density of PCC is mentioned in various units.
About 35% of the volume of the concrete is comprised of sand. For concrete to be of good quality it should be produced by careful mixing of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, water, and admixtures as needed in order to obtain optimum quality and economy.
The building density of natural sand is 1.71 kg/m3 used for construction and has a specific gravity of around 2.65. Natural sand used in concrete has an F. M. value of around 5.24.
An alternative to Natural Sand is Manufactured Sand; M-Sand was used as having a bulk density of 1.75kg/m3 with specific gravity and fineness modulus around 2.73 and 4.66, respectively.
The densities of various grains of sand are listed below,
1. Loose sand has a density of 1442 kg / m3 as it is a dry form of sand.
2. Dry sand itself has a density of 1602 kg / m3.
3. Packed sand is known to have a density of around 1682 kg / m3.
4. Wet sand has a density of 1922 kg / m3 whereas Packed Wet sand has a 2082 kg / m3 of density.
Aggregate is one of the important ingredients of construction work used along with water and Portland cement, to form an essential ingredient called concrete. Aggregate forms the main body of concrete.
To increase the bulk density of concrete mix, coarse aggregates are used in two markedly different sizes—the bigger ones known to be coarse aggregate (grit) and the smaller ones fine aggregate (sand).
Aggregates Are of Two Types-
- Sand (Fine aggregate)
- Gravel (Coarse aggregate)
Fine aggregate is nothing but sand used for construction work. Sand is of two types natural sand and Manufactured sand.
Fine aggregate particle size generally varies between 75 micros to 4.75 mm. Fine aggregate fills the void or air pocket left between aggregate in concrete.
Coarse aggregate is having a particle size of more than 4.75 mm as per IS. Coarse aggregate is used to form a main body of concrete along with sand and cement mixed with water in concrete.
The maximum size of coarse aggregate used for concrete making is 20 mm. Aggregates used for construction must be chemically inactive in nature.
Aggregate Bulk Density
The bulk density of aggregate is defined as the weight or mass of aggregate per unit volume. Weight aggregate in a specified volume of the container.
Bulk density = Weight (Mass) / volume
It can also be explained as if 1 is the volume of aggregate, then its Bulk density = Mass.
The standard density of aggregate which is used in concrete making is about 1200-1750 kg/m3.
Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.
Standard Relative Aggregate Density
The standard aggregate relative density can be defined as mass divided by an equal volume of liquid like water.
Therefore, Relative density = Aggregate mass / Weight with the same volume of water
Aggregates used in general construction have related density ranges of 2.4-2.9 with a weight density of 2400-2900 kg m3.
Artificial Aggregate Density
Artificial Aggregates are Broken bricks, synthetic aggregates, and blast furnace slag. Broken bricks also called brickbat suitable for mass concreting work. but there are not recommended to be used for reinforced concrete.
Blast furnace slag aggregate is the waste material from power plants prepared from slow cooling of the slag followed by crushing. These types of aggregate are used to manufacture precast concrete products.
The sp. gr. of these range between 2–2.8 and bulk density 1120–1300 kg/m3.
The Density of Silica Fume
The specific gravity of silica fume is 2.20. The silica fume is available as produced in intensified form with a bulk density of 200-300 kg/m3.
Densified with a bulk density of 500-600 kg/m3; in the form of micro pellets with a bulk density of 600-800 kg/m3.
In slurry form with the desired concentration (generally with a density of 1400 kg/m3). The other basic characteristics are the specific surface area of 1500-2000 cm2/g, standard grade slurry pH value of 4.7, the specific gravity of 1.3-1.4, and the dry content of micro silica of 48-52 percent.
The density of Different Construction Materials.
The building construction materials density table,
|2.||Sand or Fine Aggregate||1450 to 2082 kg/m3|
|3.||Bricks||1600 to 1920 kg/m3|
|5.||Coarse aggregate or Gravel||2850 to 2960 kg/m3|
|7.||Soil||1760 kg/m3 (Black Cotton Soil)|
|9.||Marble Stone||2620 kg/m3|
|10.||Granite Stone||2460-2800 kg/m3|
|13.||RCC 2% Steel||2500 kg/m3|
|14.||Cement concrete block(solid)||1800 kg/m3|
|15.||Lime Mortar||1760 kg/m3|
|17.||Sal Wood||990 kg/m3|
|18.||Cement Mortar||2080 kg/m3|
|19.||A.C.sheet corrugated||16 kg/m3|
In conclusion, the density of cement, sand, aggregate, and steel are all important factors to consider in construction and engineering. Cement has a density of approximately 1440 kg/m3, while sand and aggregate typically have densities between 1500-1700 kg/m3 and 1200-1750 kg/m3, respectively. Steel, on the other hand, has a density of approximately 7850 kg/m3.
Understanding the densities of these materials is crucial for designing and constructing buildings and structures that are strong and stable.
The proper mixing and proportioning of cement, sand, and aggregate are essential for achieving the desired strength and durability of concrete.
Similarly, the use of steel in construction requires accurate calculations of its density to ensure that the structural elements can withstand the forces and loads placed upon them.
In summary, the density of cement, sand, aggregate, and steel are important considerations in construction and engineering, and a thorough understanding of these values can lead to safer and more efficient building practices.
What is the density of cement?
The density of cement can vary depending on its composition and type. Generally, the density of cement ranges from 1,100 to 1,500 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) or 68 to 94 pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³).
What is the density of sand?
The density of sand can vary depending on factors such as its moisture content, composition, and particle size. On average, dry sand has a density ranging from 1,400 to 1,600 kg/m³ or 87 to 100 lb/ft³. However, the density of wet or compacted sand may be higher.
What is the density of aggregate?
The density of aggregate, which includes materials like gravel, crushed stone, and sand, can vary depending on the specific type and grading. Generally, the density of coarse aggregate ranges from 1,000 to 2,500 kg/m³ or 62 to 156 lb/ft³, while the density of fine aggregate falls between 1,500 to 3,000 kg/m³ or 94 to 187 lb/ft³.
What is the density of steel?
The density of steel is approximately 7,800 kg/m³ or 488 lb/ft³. It is important to note that the density of steel can vary slightly depending on the specific alloy and grade. However, the average density value provides a useful approximation for most applications involving steel.
You May Also Like:
- Specific Gravity Test of Cement – Procedure, Result
- What Is PPC Cement | PCC Full-Form | Difference Between OPC and PPC Cement
- Difference Between Cement and Concrete |Concrete Vs Cement | What Is Cement Concrete
- Specific Gravity Test of Cement – Procedure, Result
- ACC Cement Bricks | ACC Block | ACC Cement Bricks Price | ACC Cement Block Price | ACC Fly Ash Bricks Price