35 Different Types of Wood & Their Uses

What Is Wood?

Wood is a versatile and abundant natural resource that has been used for thousands of years for a variety of purposes, from construction to furniture making.

There are different types of wood, each with its own unique characteristics and uses. Some of the most common types include hardwoods, such as oak and maple, and softwoods, such as pine and spruce.

Other wood types include exotic woods, such as teak and ipe, and engineered woods, such as plywood and MDF.

Understanding the properties and uses of different types of wood can help you make informed decisions when it comes to selecting the right type of wood for your project.

Read More: Types of Timber used in House Construction

Different Types of Wood

Following are different types of wood available in the market for different purposes.

1. Akasa Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Akasa Wood

Its types of heartwood and sapwood. Which is straight-grained grey-brown color. It is mainly utilized in interior joinery, light structural work, flooring, utility furniture, veneer for plywood, and turnery. Akasa wood is general utility interior wood.

Akasa Wood is a type of wood that is commonly used in traditional South Asian architecture and furniture design. It is known for its beautiful grain patterns, warm color tones, and durability, making it a popular choice for building homes, temples, and other structures in India and neighboring countries.

The exact species of tree that Akasa Wood comes from is not clear, but it is believed to belong to the Hardwood group of trees.

2. Ash Wood

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Ash Wood

Ashwood is one type of light wood and it offers distinctive luster when polished. Its structure is almost open grain and is reasonably hard-wearing.

Ash Wood is a hardwood species that is native to temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. It is characterized by its light-colored wood with a straight, pronounced grain pattern and a medium to high density.

Ash Wood is prized for its versatility, durability, and shock resistance, making it a popular choice for furniture, flooring, sports equipment (such as baseball bats), and cabinetry. The wood is also valued for its ability to hold paint and stains well, giving it a long-lasting, attractive finish.

3. Balsa Wood

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Balsa Wood

However, balsa wood is one of the softest and lightest weight timbers, it is a hardwood. Balsa is mainly used for heat, sound, and vibration insulation and for model making.

Balsa Wood is a type of fast-growing hardwood that is native to Central and South America. It is known for being the lightest commercial wood in the world, with a low density and exceptional buoyancy.

Due to its low weight, Balsa Wood is often used in a variety of applications, including modeling, kite building, surfboards, and packaging materials. It is also used as a core material in the construction of composite materials, where its lightness and strength make it ideal for use in lightweight structures.

Despite its low weight, Balsa Wood is surprisingly strong and has a good strength-to-weight ratio, making it a versatile and popular material in many industries.

4. Bamboo Wood

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Bamboo Wood

It generally has a rich golden color that’s very hard-wearing. As bamboo is impervious to moisture, it can be used in conjunction with the ornamental part of a water feature or for flooring in bathrooms, conservatories, and other wet areas.

Bamboo Wood refers to the solid and durable culms (stems) of various species of bamboo plants, which are used as a building and construction material. Bamboo is a highly renewable resource, as it grows much faster than traditional hardwoods and can be harvested in as little as 3-5 years.

Bamboo is often considered to be a green alternative to wood, as it is eco-friendly and has a lower carbon footprint compared to traditional hardwoods.

Bamboo Wood is used in a variety of applications, including flooring, furniture, cabinetry, and even structural applications, due to its strength and durability.

It is also used in the production of handicrafts and other decorative items, as its unique grain patterns and light color tones make it a popular choice for aesthetics.

5. Beech Wood

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Beech Wood

Beechwood is one of the hard durable wood that is found in its natural form and comes in a variety of warm, soft honey tones. Sometimes, beech has been treated at high temperatures to create a unique red color.

Beech Wood is a type of hardwood that is native to Europe and Asia. It is characterized by its reddish-brown color and distinctive straight, fine grain pattern. Beech Wood is a dense and hard wood, with a high resistance to wear and abrasion, making it a popular choice for furniture, flooring, and cabinetry.

The wood is also known for its ability to hold fine details, making it ideal for use in moldings, carvings, and other decorative applications. In addition, Beech Wood is valued for its steam-bending properties, which make it a popular choice for the production of chairs, bentwood items, and other curved furniture pieces.

Overall, Beech Wood is a versatile and durable hardwood that is widely used in a variety of applications.

Read More: How To Remove Mold From Wood | How To Clean Mold Off Wood

6. Brazilian Mahogany Wood

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Mahogany Wood

Brazilian Mahogany is a type of hardwood that is native to South America and commonly known as “genuine” or “true” mahogany.

It is prized for its rich reddish-brown color, fine texture, and straight grain pattern, making it a popular choice for high-end furniture, cabinetry, flooring, and millwork. Brazilian Mahogany is known for its stability, durability, and resistance to decay, making it ideal for use in outdoor and marine applications.

The wood is also favored for its workability, as it can be easily shaped, sanded, and finished to a high standard. However, due to the species’ declining populations, Brazilian Mahogany has become increasingly difficult to source and is now protected by international trade laws, which limit its harvest and export.

As a result, alternative species of wood that are similar in appearance and properties are often marketed as “Brazilian Mahogany.”

7. Cedar Wood

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Cedar Wood

It is one of the major used lightweight softwood. It can be useful in construction work. Cedarwood is proven durable with straight gain.

Cedar Wood refers to the softwood from various species of trees in the cedar family, which are native to the Americas and some parts of the Old World. Cedar Wood is known for its distinctive reddish-brown color and fragrant aroma, as well as its natural resistance to rot, decay, and insect damage.

This makes it a popular choice for outdoor use, such as in decking, fencing, and siding, as well as for indoor use, such as in closets and chests, where it helps to protect clothing and other stored items from insects.

Cedar Wood is also prized for its attractive appearance, with a fine, uniform texture and straight grain pattern, making it a popular choice for decorative uses, such as paneling and trim work.

Due to its resistance to decay and insect damage, Cedar Wood is considered to be a sustainable and environmentally-friendly choice for many applications.

8. Celtis Wood

Celtis wood is a straight-grained but sometimes interlocked wood. It comes up with yellowish-grey heartwood and sapwood and a fine texture with a slightly lustrous look.

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Celtis Wood

Celtis is a genus of deciduous trees and shrubs in the hemp family (Cannabaceae), commonly known as hackberries.

These trees are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world, including temperate and tropical regions of the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Celtis Wood is known for its durability and workability, making it a popular choice for furniture, cabinetry, flooring, and other applications.

The wood is typically light to medium in color, with a straight, fine grain pattern and a uniform texture. Due to its relatively low density and moderate weight, Celtis Wood is also used as a substitute for other, more expensive hardwoods in some applications.

However, the wood is not widely available and is not as well known as other hardwoods, such as oak or maple, making it a less common choice for many uses.

9. Conifer Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Conifer Wood

Wood cut out from Coniferous or cone-bearing trees is known as conifers. Generally, these trees are evergreen, the trees have needle-like leaves, and produce softwood timber. This term generally covers and includes:

  • Araucaria
  • Cedar
  • Cypress
  • Douglas fir
  • Fir
  • Hemlock
  • Juniper
  • Larche
  • Pine
  • Podocarpus
  • Redwood
  • Spruce
  • Yew

Read More: Difference Between Wood and Timber | What Is Wood | What Is Timber | What Is Lumber

10. Cherry Wood

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Cherry Wood

Cherry wood has the color reddish-brown and it comes up with straight-grained wood that may contain pith flecks and small gum pockets that create random patterning.

Many people believe that cherry wood is the best wood for carving because it is soft enough to be carved easily but is also hard enough to hold its shape.

Cherry wood also has a beautiful, rich color that makes it a popular choice for furniture, carvings, and other decorative items.

11. Dahoma Wood

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Dahoma Wood

Dahoma wood generally has coarse interlocked grain, yellowish-brown streaky heartwood, and pale sapwood. It is one of hard timber mostly for exterior use, such as exterior structural timbers, mining timbers, marine work, sleepers, outdoor furniture, decking, and so on.

12. Danta Wood

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Danta Wood

The danta wood comes up with fine grain mostly interlocked with mahogany red heartwood and lighter sapwood. It’s a hard and strong wearing surface. It is mostly used for high-quality joinery, cabinetwork, benchtops, boat components, decking, and interior and exterior applications.

13. Douglas Fir Wood

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Douglas Fir Wood

Douglas fir wood is grown in North America and the UK. It generally has a light reddish-brown color with softwood, used for construction, interior, and exterior joinery, and plywood. It is very strong compared to weight.

14. European Beech

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European Beech Wood

European Beech is generally grown in Europe and is a white to pale brown color hardwood, used for furniture, interior joinery, and flooring. It can be used for plywood.

15. Elm Wood

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Elm Wood

It is one of hardwood and grain similar to or even exceeding that of oak. It is found in a variety of colors and tones from cream to dark brown and its grain is equally diverse, ranging from straight to wavy. Characteristically, the elm comes up and incorporates knots and burrs.

16. Greenheart Wood

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Greenheart Wood

Guyana and Suriname. It is a dense, strong and durable wood that is known for its excellent resistance to rot, decay and termites, making it a popular choice for outdoor use such as marine construction, piers, and bridges.

The wood is characterized by its distinctive green color that darkens to a deep brown over time when exposed to sunlight and air. Greenheart is a heavy wood, weighing between 700-800 kilograms per cubic meter and has a high resistance to shock and bending.

Greenheart is also a valuable timber due to its unique properties, including its strength and durability, which make it a preferred wood for use in a variety of applications, such as flooring, decks, docks, and heavy-duty construction. Additionally, Greenheart is often sought after for its ornamental value, particularly in furniture making and cabinetry.

17. Iroko Wood

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Iroko Wood

Iroko wood trees mostly grew in West Africa. It has the color yellow-brown hardwood with a grain that’s irregular and interlocked.

Iroko wood is mostly utilized for interior and exterior joinery and for construction work. A cheaper alternative to teak.

18. Khaya Wood

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Khaya Wood

Khaya is a type of hardwood that is commonly known as African Mahogany and is native to the tropical rainforests of West and Central Africa. It is a prized wood species due to its beauty, strength, and stability, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications.

The wood is known for its distinctive reddish-brown color, which can range from a light pinkish-brown to a dark red-brown, and has a fine, uniform texture with a straight grain pattern. Khaya is a relatively lightweight wood, with a density of around 550 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its good workability, making it easy to saw, plane, and sand.

Khaya is widely used in the furniture and cabinetry industries, where it is prized for its attractive appearance and durability. The wood is also commonly used for interior trim, doors, flooring, and veneers, as well as for the construction of musical instruments such as guitar and drums.

Additionally, Khaya is a popular wood for outdoor use due to its resistance to rot and decay, making it a good choice for decks, pergolas, and outdoor furniture.

19. Ligneous Wood

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Ligneous Wood

The ligneous wood materials are bagasse, bamboo, cereal straw, and flax or hemp shives.

“Ligneous” is an adjective used to describe wood-like or woody properties, but it is not a specific type of wood. The term is used to describe materials that have properties similar to wood, such as hardness, strength, and rigidity.

20. Maple Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Maple Wood

It is generally straight-grained and is characterized by irregular patterning, which can include fiddle back and bird’s eye patterns.

It comes up with light brown heartwood color and thin white sapwood that can be tinged with reddish-brown.

Maple wood is very strong, heavy, and has a high resistance to knocks. After being stained, it has a light, almost translucent appearance. maple is found in Canada and is one of the hardest species.

Read More: How to Remove Stain from Wood (Best 9 DIY Tips & Tricks)


21. Meranti Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Meranti Wood

This is a mixed-species grouping of the Shorea genus that’s grown in South East Asia. Commercially, meranti woods are grouped according to their color and density:

  • Dark red meranti and red lauan are medium to dark-red brown hardwoods used for interior and exterior joinery and for plywood
  • Yellow meranti or are yellow-brown hardwoods, used for interior joinery and plywood
  • Light red meranti and white lauan, are pale pink to mid-red hardwoods, used for interior joinery and plywood.

22. Oak Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Oak Wood

This is traditionally used as first-choice construction timber. It is mainly straight-grained and its Colors range from light to medium brown.

Oak is a type of hardwood that is commonly found in North America, Europe, and Asia. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance.

The wood is characterized by its distinctive light to medium brown color, with a straight grain pattern that can have distinctive flecks and waves. Oak is a heavy and dense wood, with a density ranging from 720 to 740 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its excellent resistance to rot, decay, and insect damage.

Oak is widely used in the furniture and cabinetry industries for its attractive appearance and durability. It is also commonly used for flooring, millwork, paneling, and other interior and exterior applications. Additionally, oak is a popular choice for the production of wine barrels due to its ability to impart a distinct flavor and aroma to the wine.

Overall, oak is a highly valued wood species due to its strength, durability, and versatility, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings.

Sometimes, it is called red oak because its autumnal foliage has more flecks and a defined-grained finish. Oakwood is heavy, hard-wearing, and very strong.


23. Oak, European Wood

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Oak, European Wood

European Oak, also known as Quercus robur, is a type of hardwood that is commonly found in Europe. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance.

European Oak is characterized by its light to medium brown color, with a straight grain pattern that can have distinctive flecks and waves. The wood is heavy and dense, with a density ranging from 720 to 740 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its excellent resistance to rot, decay, and insect damage.

European Oak is widely used in the furniture and cabinetry industries for its attractive appearance and durability. It is also commonly used for flooring, millwork, paneling, and other interior and exterior applications. Additionally, European Oak is a popular choice for the production of wine barrels due to its ability to impart a distinct flavor and aroma to the wine.


24. Opepe Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Opepe Wood

Opepe is a type of hardwood that is commonly found in Central and West Africa. It is a dense and heavy wood that is known for its strength and durability, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications.

The wood is characterized by its dark brown to black color, with a straight grain pattern and a fine texture. Opepe has a density of around 970 kilograms per cubic meter, making it one of the heaviest hardwoods in the world, and is known for its excellent resistance to rot, decay, and insect damage.

Opepe is widely used for construction, particularly for heavy-duty applications, such as bridges, docks, and wharves. The wood is also used for flooring, furniture, and cabinetry, as well as for the production of charcoal. Additionally, Opepe is valued for its ornamental properties, particularly for its unique and attractive appearance, and is used for decorative accents in furniture and cabinetry.


25. Okoume Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Okoume Wood

This is only found in the forests of Gabon. Okoume wood is softwood and has color salmon pink in color with a fibrous texture and an irregular grain that looks like light mahogany. Okoume trees mainly produce cylindrical logs, which are suitable for slicing and peeling and is mainly used to make veneer sheet.


26. Pine Wood

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Pine Wood

Pine is a type of softwood that is commonly found in North America, Europe, and Asia. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its soft, lightweight, and relatively inexpensive nature.

Pine is characterized by its light yellow to reddish-brown color, with a straight grain pattern and a fine to medium texture. The wood is relatively light, with a density ranging from 350 to 600 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its ease of workability and versatility.

Pine is widely used in the construction industry for its soft and lightweight nature, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as framing, paneling, and millwork. It is also used for furniture and cabinetry, particularly for inexpensive and lightweight options, as well as for the production of paper and other wood-based products.

Overall, pine is a highly valued wood species due to its soft, lightweight, and relatively inexpensive nature, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings. Its versatility, workability, and attractive appearance make it a popular choice for a variety of projects.Regenerate response


27. Pitch Pine Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Pitch Pine Wood

Pitch Pine is a type of softwood that is commonly found in North America, particularly in the Eastern United States and Canada. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance.

Pitch Pine is characterized by its yellow to reddish-brown color, with a straight or slightly wavy grain pattern and a fine to medium texture. The wood is relatively light, with a density ranging from 400 to 450 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its strength, durability, and resistance to rot and decay.

Pitch Pine is widely used in the construction industry for its strength and durability, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as framing, flooring, and millwork. It is also used for furniture and cabinetry, particularly for rustic and natural-looking options, as well as for the production of paper and other wood-based products.

Overall, Pitch Pine is a highly valued wood species due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings. Its natural color and texture make it a popular choice for rustic and natural-looking projects.


28. Poplar Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Poplar Wood

nexpensive nature.

Poplar is characterized by its light yellow to greenish-brown color, with a straight grain pattern and a fine to medium texture. The wood is relatively light, with a density ranging from 420 to 550 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its workability and versatility.

Poplar is widely used in the construction industry for its light and soft nature, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as millwork, paneling, and moldings. It is also used for furniture and cabinetry, particularly for inexpensive and lightweight options, as well as for the production of paper and other wood-based products.


29. Redwood, European

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Redwood, European

Pinus sylvestris is generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and the Russian Commonwealth. It is also available in the UK, where it’s known as Scots pine or British pine.

It has colored a pale yellowish-brown to red-brown softwood, commonly used for construction, joinery, and furniture.


30. Sapele Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Sapele Wood

popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance.

Sapele is characterized by its dark reddish-brown to purplish-brown color, with a straight to interlocking grain pattern and a fine to medium texture. The wood is relatively heavy, with a density ranging from 720 to 800 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its strength, durability, and resistance to rot, decay, and insect damage.

Sapele is widely used in the construction industry for its strength and durability, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as flooring, millwork, and cabinetry. It is also used for furniture, particularly for high-end and decorative pieces, as well as for the production of musical instruments, such as drums and guitars.

Overall, Sapele is a highly valued wood species due to its strength, durability, and attractive appearance, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings. Its natural color and texture make it a popular choice for high-end and decorative projects.


31. Sitka Spruce Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Sitka Spruce Wood

Sitka Spruce is a type of softwood that is commonly found in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, stability, and attractive appearance.

Sitka Spruce is characterized by its pale yellow to white color, with a straight grain pattern and a fine to medium texture. The wood is relatively light, with a density ranging from 380 to 450 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its strength, stability, and resistance to rot and decay.

Sitka Spruce is widely used in the construction industry for its strength and stability, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as framing, flooring, and millwork. It is also used for furniture and cabinetry, as well as for the production of musical instruments, such as guitars and violins.

Overall, Sitka Spruce is a highly valued wood species due to its strength, stability, and attractive appearance, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings. Its natural color and texture make it a popular choice for projects that require a strong and stable wood material.


32. Southern Yellow Pine

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Southern Yellow Pine

It is generally southern yellow pine used for interior and exterior construction as it’s easy to work and finishes well. It has very few defects.

Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) is a type of softwood that is commonly found in the southeastern region of the United States. It is a popular choice for a wide range of applications due to its strength, stability, and affordability.

Southern Yellow Pine is characterized by its yellow to light reddish-brown color, with a straight to wavy grain pattern and a medium to coarse texture. The wood is relatively heavy, with a density ranging from 480 to 550 kilograms per cubic meter, and is known for its strength, stability, and resistance to rot and decay.

Southern Yellow Pine is widely used in the construction industry for its strength and stability, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications, such as framing, flooring, and millwork. It is also used for furniture, cabinetry, and paneling, as well as for the production of paper and other wood-based products.

Overall, Southern Yellow Pine is a highly valued wood species due to its strength, stability, and affordability, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications in both residential and commercial settings. Its natural color and texture make it a popular choice for projects that require a strong and stable wood material at an affordable price.


33. Teak Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Teak Wood

Teak wood is found in Burma and Thailand and has been extensively planted elsewhere. It has the major color of golden-brown hardwood, sometimes with dark markings that are used for furniture, interior, and exterior joinery.


34. Utile Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Utile Wood

Utile woods are majorly grown in West Africa. It has color reddish-brown hardwood, used for interior and exterior joinery, furniture, and cabinetwork.


35. Walnut Wood

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
American Walnut

Walnut wood has occasional waves and curls and rich dark tones that are created through a combination of rich dark heartwood and creamy brown sapwood. It comes up with varying grain patterns.


36. Western Hemlock

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Western Hemlock

Western Hemlock wood is mainly found in North America and is pale brown softwood, used for construction and joinery.


37. Western Red Cedar

Western Red Cedar is mostly found in North America and is a reddish-brown softwood, used for roofing shingles, exterior cladding, and greenhouses.

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Western Red Cedar

38. Whitewood, European

35 Most Popular Types of Wood | Wood Types | Different Types of Wood
Whitewood, European

Whitewood is found in Europe, the Baltic states, and the Russian commonwealth It’s a commercial grouping of white to pale yellowish-brown softwoods, commonly used for construction, joinery, and flooring.

Advantages of Wood

  • Wood is a better choice to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, air and water pollution, and other impacts. Steel and concrete as the most consumed building materials use 12% and 20% more energy and emit 15% and 29% more greenhouse gases. Their use also releases 10% and 12% more pollutants into the air and generates 300% and 225% more water pollutants than wood, respectively.
  • It helps in reducing the consumption of energy across the life cycle of growth, harvest, transport, manufacture, and construction compared to other structural building products according to life cycle assessment (LCA). 
  • It can improve energy efficiency, as wood is an excellent insulator, wood has a cellular structure that allows for air pockets, helping to slow the conductivity of heat.    
  • Product manufactured from wood is able to store carbon, helping to mitigate climate change while also providing a good alternative for materials that require large amounts of fossil fuels to produce.  
  • Using wood helps give rise to growing more trees and increases our carbon storage potential by helping to ensure that it is affordable for forest owners to continue sustainably managing their forestland.

Conclusion

In conclusion, wood is a versatile and abundant natural resource that is used for a wide range of purposes. The different types of wood each have their own unique properties and use, from the dense and strong hardwoods to the lightweight and softer softwoods.


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FAQs:

Different Types of Wood

The most popular wood types are as follows,
1. Akasa Wood
2. Ash Wood
3. Balsa Wood
4. Bamboo Wood
5. Beech Wood
6. Brazilian mahogany Wood
7. Cedar Wood
8. Celtis Wood
9. Conifer Wood
10. Cherry Wood

What is the difference between hardwoods and softwoods?

Hardwoods are obtained from deciduous trees and are generally denser, stronger, and more durable than softwoods which are obtained from coniferous trees and are lighter, softer, and less dense.

What are engineered woods?

A: Engineered woods are created by bonding together layers of wood to create a product with improved stability, strength, and dimensional stability. Examples include plywood and MDF.

What are exotic woods?

Exotic woods are those that are imported from other countries and are often prized for their unique and exotic grain patterns.

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