Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

Any enclose or open space with a roof, sidewall, foundation, W.C. & bath, etc., is called a building

In these Tents, tarpaulin shelters and slums without foundations, walls and rigid roof erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions shall not be considered as buildings, even when they are used for longer periods.

All buildings shall be classified according to the use or the character of occupancy as:

  1. Residential buildings
  2. Educational buildings
  3. Institutional buildings
  4. Assembly buildings
  5. Business buildings
  6. Mercantile buildings
  7. Industrial buildings
  8. Storage buildings
  9. Hazardous buildings


Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

1)  Residential Buildings:

types of buildings in civil engineering
Residential Buildings

Residential buildings are those in which at least sleeping facility is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities (except institutional buildings). It includes single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses (flats), lodgings or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hotels.

2) Educational Building:

These include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.

3) Institutional Buildings:

types of buildings in civil engineering
Education Buildings

Institutional buildings are used for various purpose such as medical treatment other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants or old age persons care and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. The institutional buildings are major includes sleeping accommodation for the occupants. They include hospitals, sanitoria, custodia institutions or penal institutions like jails, prisons and mental asylums.

4) Assembly Buildings:

types of buildings in civil engineering
Assembly Buildings

These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil, travel and similar purposes; as theatres, motion picture houses, marriage halts, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, assembly halls  museums, skating rinks, city halls gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls), places of worship, dance halts, dub rooms, passenger stations and terminals of air, surface and other public transportation services, recreation places and stadia etc.


Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

5) Business Buildings:

Business Building – Burj Khalifa

These buildings are used for the transaction of business (other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for keeping of accounts and records and for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional establishments, courthouses and libraries. The major activities in this type of building are transaction of public business and keeping of books and records.

6) Mercantile Buildings: 

These type of building used for selling of a small product in which small shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located is known as Mercantile building.

7)  Industrial Buildings:

types of buildings in civil engineering
Industrial Buildings

Type of building in which raw material process and material fabrication, processing or assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, and power plants, pumping stations, smokehouses, laundries, gas plants, refineries, dairies, and sawmills.

8) Storage Buildings:

Storage Buildings

Storage buildings are those in which material is stored or sheltering facilities are provided for goods like wares or merchandise. This building also being used for handling highly combustible material in warehouses, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, truck and marine terminals, garages, hangars (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.

9) Hazardous Buildings:

types of buildings in civil engineering
Hazardous Buildings

Hazardous building used for storage of such material or chemical which are highly dangerous to human or it may pollute the environment. They are majorly used storage, processing of highly combustible material handling, manufacture or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and poisonous elements, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, Poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases. These buildings also used for material processing which produces explosive mixtures of dust which result in the of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.

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