Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

9 Types of Building | Type of Building Structures | Classification of Buildings5 min read

What Is Building?

Any enclose or open space with a roof, sidewall, foundation, W.C. & bath, etc., is called a Building.

In these Tents, tarpaulin shelters and slums without foundations, walls and rigid roof erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions shall not be considered as buildings, even when they are used for longer periods.

Types of Buildings

Building Structures types as follows,

  • Residential buildings
  • Educational buildings
  • Institutional buildings
  • Assembly buildings
  • Business buildings
  • Mercantile buildings
  • Industrial buildings
  • Storage buildings
  • Hazardous buildings

Read More: Building Construction Step By Step Process

1.  Residential Buildings

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Residential Buildings

Residential buildings are those in which at least sleeping facility is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities (except institutional buildings). It includes single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses (flats), lodgings or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hotels.

2. Educational Building:

These include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.

3. Institutional Buildings:

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Education Buildings

Institutional buildings are used for various purposes such as medical treatment other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants or old age persons care, and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.

The institutional buildings are major includes sleeping accommodation for the occupants. They include hospitals, sanitoria, custodial institutions, or penal institutions like jails, prisons, and mental asylums.

4. Assembly Buildings:

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Assembly Buildings

These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil, travel and similar purposes; as theatres, motion picture houses, marriage halts, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, assembly halls  museums, skating rinks, city halls gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls), places of worship, dance halts, dub rooms, passenger stations and terminals of air, surface and other public transportation services, recreation places and stadia etc.

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5. Business Buildings

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Business Building – Burj Khalifa

These buildings are used for the transaction of business (other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for the keeping of accounts and records, and for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional establishments, courthouses, and libraries. The major activities in this type of building are the transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records.

6. Mercantile Buildings

This type of building used for selling a small product in which small shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located is known as Mercantile building.

7. Industrial Buildings

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Industrial Buildings

Type of building in which raw material process and material fabrication, processing or assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, and power plants, pumping stations, smokehouses, laundries, gas plants, refineries, dairies, and sawmills.

8. Storage Buildings

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Storage Buildings

Storage buildings are those in which material is stored or sheltering facilities are provided for goods like wares or merchandise. This building also being used for handling highly combustible material in warehouses, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, truck and marine terminals, garages, hangars (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.

9. Hazardous Building

Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering
Hazardous Buildings

The hazardous building used for storage of such material or chemical which are highly dangerous to human or it may pollute the environment.

They have majorly used storage, processing of highly combustible material handling, manufacture or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and poisonous elements, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, Poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases.

These buildings also used for material processing which produces explosive mixtures of dust that result in the of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.


Classification of Buildings

Building are classified as follows,
Residential buildings
Educational buildings
Institutional buildings
Assembly buildings
Business buildings
Mercantile buildings
Industrial buildings
Storage buildings
Hazardous buildings

Different Types of Building Construction

Types of building in construction are 1. Residential buildings, 2. Educational building, 2. Institutional Building, 3. Assembly Building, 4. Business Building, 5. Industrial Building, 6. Storage Building, 7. Hazardous buildings

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