Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering

Type of Building In Civil Engineering

What Is Building?

Any enclosed or open space with a roof, sidewall, foundation, W.C. & bath, etc., is called a Building.

In these Tents, tarpaulin shelters and slums without foundations, walls, and rigid roofs erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions shall not be considered buildings, even when they are used for longer periods.

Read More: Building Construction Step-By-Step Process

Types of Building

The following are different types of buildings,

1.  Residential Buildings

Residential Buildings
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Residential buildings are those in which at least a sleeping facility is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking and dining facilities (except institutional buildings).

It includes single or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses (flats), lodgings or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories, and residential hotels.

2. Educational Buildings

These include any building used for school, college, or daycare purposes involving assembly for instruction, education, or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.

3. Institutional Buildings

Education Buildings
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Institutional buildings are used for various purposes such as medical treatment other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants or old age persons care, and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.

The institutional buildings are major including sleeping accommodations for the occupants.

They include hospitals, sanitoria, custodial institutions, or penal institutions like jails, prisons, and mental asylums.

4. Assembly Buildings

Assembly Buildings
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These are the buildings where groups of people meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil, travel, and similar purposes; such as theatres, motion picture houses, marriage halts, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, assembly halls museums.

Also Included skating rinks, city halls gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls), places of worship, dance halts, dub rooms, passenger stations, terminals of air, surface, and other public transportation services, recreation places, and stadia, etc.

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5. Business Buildings

Business Building - Burj Khalifa
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These buildings are used for the transaction of business (other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for the keeping of accounts and records, and for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional establishments, courthouses, and libraries.

The major activities in this type of building are the transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records.

6. Mercantile Buildings

This type of building is used for selling a small product in which small shops, stores, markets, for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office, shops, and storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located known as Mercantile building.

7. Industrial Buildings

Industrial Buildings
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Type of building in which raw material process and material fabrication, processing or assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, power plants, pumping stations, smokehouses, laundries, gas plants, refineries, dairies, and sawmills.

8. Storage Buildings

Storage Buildings
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Storage buildings are those in which material is stored or sheltering facilities are provided for goods like wares or merchandise.

This building is also being used for handling highly combustible material in warehouses, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, trucks, marine terminals, garages, hangars (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns, and stables.

9. Hazardous Building

Hazardous Buildings
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The hazardous building is used for the storage of such materials or chemicals that are highly dangerous to humans or it may pollute the environment.

They have majorly used storage, and processing of highly combustible material handling, the manufacture of explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and poisonous elements, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic, or noxious alkalies, acids, or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, Poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases.

These buildings are also used for material processing which produces explosive mixtures of dust that result in the of matter into fine particles subjected to spontaneous ignition.

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In conclusion the diverse type of building in civil engineering reflect the ever-evolving needs of society, through innovative design, efficient construction techniques and sustainable practices, civil engineers continue to contribute to the development of safe, aesthetically pleasing structure, functional structure that shape our urban environments and support various aspects of our daily lives.


What is a slump test in concrete testing?

A slump test is a simple and commonly used test to measure the workability and consistency of freshly mixed concrete.

Why is a slump test important?

A slump test is important because it helps to ensure that the concrete has the desired consistency and workability for its intended use, such as pouring into a form or placing as a finished surface.

What is the significance of the slump value?

The slump value is a measure of the workability of the concrete and is an indicator of its ability to flow and fill the formwork. A higher slump value indicates a more workable and fluid concrete mixture.

What are the limitations of a slump test?

The limitations of a slump test include its inability to measure the strength or quality of the concrete and its reliance on the judgment and skill of the person performing the test.

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