What Is Wall?
A wall is a continuous vertical brick or stone structure that encloses or defines an area, carries a load, provides security, shelter, soundproofing, and many other benefits. However, nowadays walls could be made of different types of walls materials like Glass, Wood, Plywood, Cinder Blocks, Steel sheets, etc.
Hence depending on the material the wall is made of, it can be divided into many types. This includes walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior rooms, and sometimes even used for fire safety.
What Is the Purpose of Wall?
Wall has various significance and purposes which are as discussed below,
- Wall is constructed to define the area in the building.
- It also functions to define the boundaries of a specific area.
- In a load bearing structure wall carries load of a building and transfer it to the foundation.
- In various circumstances wall also carries the load of the roof slab.
- It acts as a sound barrier to provide comfort against outside noise.
- It ensures privacy and also provides security.
- Wall is the structure that defines the building hence is one of the most important superstructures.
What Is Interior Wall?
Interior walls are enclosed within a building by outer walls or exterior walls. Which consist of both load-bearing walls in load-bearing structures and walls that don’t bear weight, like that of in non-load bearing structure is called partition walls.
An Interior load-bearing wall is routinely located directly above or below another load-bearing wall in order to transfer the load to a beam or a structural column. Whereas, the position of the partition wall might vary accordingly.
Even after being different in properties both types of walls employ similar framing standards, and has a similar function as listed below,
- Interior wall also that of exterior wall provides safety, security, and privacy.
- For creating partition and transforming large room into smaller rooms, interior walls could be used.
- This walls could be decorated hence gives the aesthetic beauty to that room.
- Along with decoration it is also used as the platform for hanging materials, pictures, or other decorative materials.
Types of Interior Wall Materials
The various internal wall types are listed below,
- Brick Wall
- Stone Wall
- Glass Wall
- Wood Wall
- Plywood Wall
- Cinder Blocks Wall
- Metal Sheet Wall
- Plastic Panels Wall
1. Brick Wall
A brick wall is a vertical element of structure made of bricks and mortar which divides the components of a building into different parts. The brick wall is used as an external or interior wall of the building, parapets, internal partitions, freestanding walls, retaining walls, etc.
In ancient times bricks walls were made using bricks held together by thin mud slurry, some of which have proved to be surprisingly resilient. It has the flexibility to be constructed straight, curved, zigzag, and as designed in the plan.
Considering modern construction, brick walls are used as the external component of cavity wall construction in order to reduce thermal transmission through the wall. However, a brick wall requires a foundation which can be either a concrete strip or a traditional ‘footing’.
2. Stone Wall
Stone Walls are used throughout the world in various forms. Even though it is a very ancient concept to build a brick wall, it is used in modern days by applying various modifications to it.
As discussed it is a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years because of its reliability. It is known to be first constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling loose field stones into a dry stone wall.
Materials required for building stone walls are locally available hence its construction proves to be economical. Stonewall requires materials such as limestone, granite, sandstone, ashlars, Portland stone, etc. Among which Granite and Portland stone are well resistant to weathering.
One of the best examples of the Stone Wall in India is the Cyclopean Wall in Rajgir.
3. Glass Wall
A Glass Wall is also known as Glass Partition Wall is an interior wall structure primarily made of glass or of an alternative to glass. To form a glass partition, glass panels are paired using metal frames, channels, or clamps to create custom non-load-bearing walls.
Glass Walls function as office dividers, bathroom partition walls, glass wall systems, and even as a partition in residential buildings. Nevertheless, they are more popular in modern office design used in cubicles, conference rooms, and entryways.
Glass wall partitions are designed to fit many different spaces suiting many design ideas hence they are space friendly, filling less floor space than a traditional structure. Using it requires fewer light fixtures as it allows natural light coming in through windows to flow freely throughout.
4. Wood Wall
The most popular and commonly used hardwoods for making wooden walls or wood partitions include oak, maple, mahogany, cherry, walnut, and teak. These woods are good wall material but are quite a bit expensive, however, the durability & longevity of wood is extremely good.
For the construction of this wall, hardwood is often used. Hardwood is utilized in the construction of ceilings and floors, whereas softwoods are beneficial to make doors, furniture, as well as window frames.
5. Plywood Wall
Plywood can be a beneficial alternative to drywall for walls and ceilings. For in case you are planning on redoing or maintaining your walls or ceilings, the reliable materials you’ll use include Sheetrock or finished plywood.
The use of plywood in the interior walls could be is not visually appealing, however; it can still be used as one of the Interior wall materials because of its long-lasting, Dimensional accuracy, and structurally modifiable features.
Plywood for walls are developed using premium quality raw material and if checked under the surveillance of extremely trained authorities it proves to be as durable or easy to work. Manufacturers offer products available in numerous designs as per consumer’s demand.
6. Cinder Blocks Wall
Cinder Blocks Wall utilizes Cinder Blocks made of concrete other coal cinders, which require necessary planning and supervision for its construction. It might require an adequate amount of reinforcement for the solid installation of the blocks.
Similar to that of bricks, the cinder blocks are stacked together and joined with a mortar made of the required cement, sand, and water ratio. These blocks are hollow from inside which allows steel bars and mortar filling within the blocks.
Cinder blocks act as a soundproof barrier and are economical to be constructed, but are not considered suitable for every place as they have less strength which results in bowing.
7. Steel Sheet Wall
Though Steel Sheet wall is expensive it’s quite durable, which has notable immense strength that offers a great advantage to houses. Not just durability and strength, it has the vital feature of flexibility in the sense.
No doubt it bends with ease without cracking even if an external force is applied. They are available in the market with a wide range of finishes and gauges so fashioning of walls becomes easy.
It is an ideal material in the construction of industrial buildings but recently, it is also been a major choice for many contemporary and modern advanced houses. The series of comparable advantages with respect to the other materials makes projects look more significant and exceptional.
Types of Wall Construction
There are various types of walls used in construction as listed below,
- Load Bearing Wall
- Non Load Bearing Wall (Drop Wall)
- Shear Wall
- Retaining Wall
- Brick Masonry Wall
- Rubble Stone Masonry Wall
- Core Wall
- Precast Wall
- Parapet Wall
- Boundary Wall
- Reinforced Brick Wall
- Cavity Wall
Read More: What Is A Cavity Wall | Cavity Wall Thickness | Cavity Wall Uses | Function of Cavity Wall | How To Build Cavity Wall | Cavity Wall Construction Methods | Cavity Wall Insulation | Advantages of Cavity Walls
1. Load Bearing Wall
A load-bearing wall is an active structural element of a building that supports and holds the weight of a floor or roof structure by conducting its weight to a foundation structure below it.
It is one of the earliest forms of construction in housing, and is also known as “platform framing”. Being the most common method in light construction projects.
2. Non Load Bearing Wall (Drop Wall)
Non-Load Bearing Wall also known as drop wall is capable only of supporting its own weight and if used as an exterior wall it can resist the force of the wind blowing against it.
These walls are well known to not support an imposed load. And if subjected to such loads might result in failure. Such walls are well suited for the partition of components of buildings.
3. Shear Wall
A shear wall is a structural panel that is made of steel braced frames which can be very effective and can resist lateral forces acting on it. Shear walls are constructed from concrete or masonry which is capable of resisting lateral forces.
Particularly shear walls are of great importance in large, or high-rise buildings, or buildings in areas of high wind and seismic activity. It can be positioned at the perimeter of buildings or it may form a shear core supporting the whole structure.
4. Retaining Wall
Retaining walls function as a supportive element to restrain soil to a slope that would not naturally keep it stable at the typical steep or vertical slope.
The main purpose of constructing a retaining wall at a specific location is to hold soil behind them, depending on the project. Walls vary from small landscape stone walls to surround a garden to enormous soil-retaining projects along a highway including hilly areas.
5. Brick Masonry Wall
6. Rubble Stone Masonry Wall
While Constructing Rubble Stone Masonry Wall, more or less large stones are arranged together to bound in such a way that the stones and the regular placement of stones extend through the thickness of the wall.
Rubble Stone Masonry Walls are further of following types,
- Random rubble masonry
- Coursed rubble masonry of the first sort
- Coursed rubble masonry of the second sort
7. Core Wall
Similarly, like that of the shear wall, it serves the purpose of resists external lateral forces like wind, earthquakes, etc. To resist the torsion effect it is constructed exactly in the center of the building.
8. Precast Wall
Construction of Precast concrete walls is initiated by casting concrete in a reusable wall mold or form which is further cured in a controlled environment, transported securely to the construction site, and lifted into the place of installation.
The main purpose of installing the precast walls is to speed up the construction process. These walls are designed as blind divider or facade which does not carry any load but must oppose parallel loads conferred on it.
9. Parapet Wall
A parapet is usually the topmost reach of a wall that elongates above the roof level and provides a specific amount of protection to balconies, roofs, gutters, walkways of houses, etc.
A parapet wall has a number of important functions and is designed in various shapes to create the desired façade. They function as a commodity to hide rooftop equipment such as AC units.
10. Boundary Wall
A boundary wall is a cast in situ or prefabricated structure available in a wide range of designs that serve as a boundary wall or fencing of immovable property.
It can also be explained as the wall, fence, or enclosure of structure constructed on or directly next to a cadastral property boundary, with any other structures, including devices, such as spikes, barbed wire, razor wire, or electric fences, affixed to or on top of a boundary wall for security purpose.
11. Reinforced Brick Wall
To tackle tensile force acting on the wall this type of wall is constructed. The requirement of reinforcement is in horizontal and vertical directions throughout the wall.
Hoop Iron Reinforcement is provided under various circumstances. This is dipped in tar to increase its resistance against rusting.
12. Cavity Wall
The cavity wall is constructed into two stages inner and outer, with a cavity ranging from 50-100mm. Among which the interior walls are thinner and thicker wall is used as an exterior element.
Wall thicker in nature carries all the load of the slab and the outer wall tends to resist external moisture and other effects.
Types of Load Bearing Wall
There are mostly six types of Load-bearing walls used in the construction industry, are as follows,
- Precast Concrete Wall
- Retaining Wall
- Masonry Wall
- Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Wall
- Engineering Brick Wall
- Stone Wall
1. Precast Concrete Wall
Precast Concrete Wall has huge durability and strength. Also, it is easy to install and provides good safety. It is manufactured in a factory and then transported to the site after curing.
It has characteristics such as,
- Thermal Resistance
- Moisture Resistance
- Fire Safety
2. Retaining Wall
Retaining Load Bearing walls are relatively rigid in nature used for supporting soil laterally so that they can maintain the unequal level of the ground surface to prevent landslides.
Retaining Wall can also be further subdivided as,
- Gravity Retaining Wall
- Reinforced Retaining Wall
- Brick Masonry Retaining Wall
- Stone Masonry Retaining Wall
3. Masonry Wall
Masonry Load Bearing Wall has great architectural beauty, with an ability to provide the required strength. It is also fire resistant and maintains the inner and outer temperature of rooms properly.
These are the most durable parts of any building or structure and require no or least maintenance.
4. Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Wall
These walls are constructed of metals such as stainless steel, copper, and aluminum. This ensures building exterior wall cladding and supports gravity, seismic, and wind loading.
Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Wall is mostly used as the exterior wall.
5. Engineering Brick Wall
Types of Walls | Interior Walls Types | Types of Wall Materials | Types of Internal Walls | Types of Walls In Homes
Engineering Brick Wall is constructed to provide strength and resistance to water and frost attack. Some of its applications are damp-proof courses, manholes, sewers, and general groundworks.
It has a good external finish hence it has architectural beauty and is resistant to frost attack.
6. Stone Wall
Stone Wall is among the ancient types of load-bearing walls. These walls are of the heavy type, in which stones are bonded by cement mortar or Kim Mortar.
Different Types of Brick Bond
There are different types of brick masonry bonds used in wall construction.
1. Stretcher Bond
Stretcher Bond is one of the basic types of brick bond. Bricks are laid horizontally and flat with a long side called a stretcher and in this bond, all brick is laid as stretchers. Sometimes stretcher bond is also known as running bond.
The limitation of the stretcher bond is that it cannot make an effective and strong bonding with adjacent bricks in full-width thick brick walls. They are only suitable for one-half brick thick walls such as partition walls.
2. Header Bond
Header means a shorter square span face of the brick which has dimensions 9cm x 9cm. In these bonds, all bricks are placed as headers on the faces of any type of wall.
While Stretcher bond is used for the construction of walls of half brick thickness whereas Header bond is used for the construction of walls with full brick thickness.
3. English Bond
English bond is one of the strongest bonds but it requires more facing bricks than any other bond. Brick flooring is done with an English bond.
English bond in the brick masonry work consists of one course of the stretcher and another course of the header above it, i.e. pattern formed by laying alternate courses of stretchers and headers.
4. Flemish Bond
Flemish Bond also famous as the Dutch bond is created by laying alternate headers and stretchers in a single same course.
Even though Flemish bonds have a better appearance but it is weaker than English bonds for the load-bearing wall construction.
5. Dutch Bond
Dutch bonds are of particular patterns for laying bricks in constructing a wall. Dutch bond is established by placing alternate headers and stretchers in a single course.
This bond is near about the same as that of the English bond consisting of header and stretcher. However, the only difference is in the 3/4th bat of a stretcher course.
Different Types of Wall Materials
Different forms of wall consume different construction materials depending on the structure of the wall. But in general wall construction requires bricks, aggregates, concrete, cast-in-place concrete, lumber sleepers, rammed earth, sods, gabions, steel sheets, and earth-filled structures
Types of Walls are mentioned below,
Solid Wall, Cavity Wall, Supported Wall, Parapet Wall, Buttress Wall, External Wall, Internal Wall, External and internal Load-bearing Wall, Green Wall, Partition Wall, Party Wall, Pile Wall, Separating Wall, Rainscreen Wall, Trombe Wall, Compartment Wall, Curtain Wall, Dwarf Wall.
A wall is a continuous vertical brick or stone structure that encloses or defines an area, carries a load, provides security, shelter, soundproofing, and many other benefits.
What Are Walls Made Of
Internal walls also known as partition walls are constructed of Bricks, Stone, Glass, Wood, Metal sheets, Cinder Blocks, Plastic Panels, etc. Whereas, for the construction of Stud walls construction materials such as timber, steel, or aluminum frames clad plasterboard, timber, metal, or fibreboard are used.
Load Bearing Wall
Types of Walls
25 types of walls are listed below,
1. Engineering Brick Wall
2. Stone Wall
3. PCC Wall
4. Retaining Wall
5. Core Wall
6. Precast Wall
7. Wood Wall
8. Glass Wall
9. Shear Wall
10. Brick Masonry Wall
11. Rubble Stone Masonry Wall
12. Drop Wall
13. Load Bearing Wall
14. Parapet Wall
15. Boundary Wall
16. Reinforced Brick Wall
17. Cavity Wall.
18. Masonry Wall
19. Brick Wall.
20. Plywood Wall.
21. Cinder Blocks Wall.
22. Metal Sheet Wall.
23. Pre Panelized Load Bearing
24. Metal Wall
25. Non-load Bearing Wall
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