Types of building materials

Building Materials List | Building Construction Materials List | Construction Materials List | Construction Materials Name List with Pictures 2023

What Is Building Materials?

“Building material is the material which is used for the construction purpose.”

Each building material possesses different properties like weight, strength, durability, and cost which makes it suitable for certain types of applications. The selection of material types is based on cost and effectiveness in resisting the loads and stresses acting on the structure. The following are the building materials in civil engineering.

Read More: Construction Material Price List 2021 (Building Materials List and Price)

Types of Building Materials

The following is the different types of building materials list used for construction,

1. Mud and Clay

Mud is defined as the mixture of soil, loam, silt, or clay with water. It generally naturally form after the rainfall near the river or water sources. After some time the mud hardens and makes a mudstone.

As a building material mud is a semi-fluid material that can be used to coat, seal, and adhere materials. Mud is referred to as with many different names by its different components like slurry, mortar, plaster, stucco, and concrete.

Mud Bricks - Types of Building Materials
Mud Bricks

Generally, a mixture of subsoil and water with the addition of stone, gravel, straw, lime, and bitumen is usually used to build walls, floors, and even roofs. In the past, the mud is usually used to plaster the building wall, construct building walls, and use to make mud bricks.

Mud mixture with some binder like bitumen or cement is called stabilized mud. It is also known as the mud create, concrete, and soil cement


  • Mud bricks
  • Mud plaster
  • Mud mortar
  • Mud concrete

2. Clay Bricks and Blocks Types of Building Materials

The mud bricks are known as the Clay bricks. It is also called adobe.

Clay Bricks - Types of Building Materials
Clay Bricks

The mud or clay is a mixture of water and placing into the molds and then allowing dry in the open air. As a binder straw is sometimes within the bricks, it makes them a composite, if the straw does not use the bricks is easy to break, due to the straw the bricks have redistributed the force throughout the bricks and reduced the chances of breakage.

The building that used this type of brick is generally protected from the groundwater.


  • Mud or clay bricks are commonly used to build homes or other necessary structures.

3. Sand

Sand is a generally granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is also defined based on its size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. It is one of the essential types of building materials.

Construction Sand - Types of Building Materials used in Building Construction
Construction Sand

The most common content of the sand is silica (sio2). It is usually in the form of quartz. The second most common content is calcium carbonate.

Sand is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE, usually, and is used to make concrete in demand nowadays.


  • River sand
  • Desert sand
  • Beach sand
  • Marine or ocean sand


  1. Bricks
  2. Concrete
  3. Mortar
  4. Paint
  5. To protect against floods sandbags are used.
  6. It is also used as an abrasive in cleaning, preparing, and polishing.

4. Aggregates

Aggregates are the most commonly used material in construction. Also, aggregates are the most mining material in the world.

Aggregate is the main component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete. It gives strength to the overall composite material.

Aggregate - ypes of Building Materials used in Building Construction

The aggregates have a high hydraulic conductivity value compared to the soil. So it is widely used in drainage applications such as foundations, septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and roadside drainage.

The aggregates are commonly used for a stable foundation or a road/rail base because they have uniform properties or a low-cost extender that binds with more expensive cement or asphalt to form concrete.

Generally, aggregates are classified into 2 types:-

Coarse aggregates:- >4.75 mm

Fine aggregates:- <4.75 mm


  • Stone quarry


  • Concrete:-
    • Asphalt concrete
    • Cement concrete
  • Road and Rail base foundation
  • Retaining wall drainage
  • Roadside drainage

5. Stone or Rock

Rock is naturally available material. It is used in construction at different places. The stone or rock which is been used in construction is hard, durable, tough, and free from the weathered soft patches of materials, cracks, and other defects which reduce the strength and durability of a rock.

Different types of Stone - Types of Building Materials used in Building Construction
Types of Stone

The rocks or stone used for construction has various different application based on their properties.

Some different types of rock or stone are listed below:-

  • Ballast
  • Granite
  • Sandstone
  • Slate
  • Laterite
  • Limestone
  • Marble


  • Stone quarry



  • Road construction
  • Concrete
  • Rubble masonry
  • Bridge piers
  • Retaining walls
  • Dams
  • Base for rails


  • Bridges and dams
  • Retaining walls
  • Curbs and stone columns
  • As a kitchen platform
  • Riser and trade-in staircase
  • Flooring
  • Door and windows framing


Ornamental works like columns, flooring, and steps.

6. Thatch

With the help of dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge, rushes, heather, or palm branches roof of the building is crafted is known as the thatching. Due to thatching, the shaded water does not come to the inner roof. Due to densely packed vegetation being used for the thatching it works as insulation also.

Thatch - Types of Building Materials used in Building Construction

This is a very old method which we have used for roofing. In developing countries, thatch is used nowadays because low-cost dry vegetation is used. In developed countries, they use thatch for the elevation purpose or to give the rustic look to their house.

The serviceability of the thatching is depended on the roof shape and design, the pitch of the roof, the position of the roof, the quality of material used for the thatching, and the skill of the thatcher.

Thatch is a natural water resistance if properly maintain it does not absorb the water. On the roof, the slope is made up to 50* so the water is not penetrating it and quickly drain off.

Thatch is had one property insulation. With the help of the straw, the roof gives a good performance in both the cold and warm seasons. It is also good resistant the wind damage.


Thatch is usually used for the roofing material with properties like good isolation, good water-resistant, and good wind resistance.

7. Wood and Timber

Wood - Types of Building Materials used in Building Construction
  • Timber is the one type of wood that is been used for construction or carpentry purpose.
  • Timber is a material which is been used for the thousand of the year.
  • Wood has unique characteristics in which it builds a variety of structures.
  • Wood is a naturally available material.
  • Wood is a good isolation material.
  • Wood is fabricated in all kinds of shapes and sizes.
  • 30% of the total construction work timber is used.
  • Timber provided good strength, toughness, durability

Application of Timber

  • Formwork
  • Door/windows frame and shutters
  • Cabinets
  • Cupboard
  • Tables and railings
  • Furniture of house
  • On-wall as isolation material
  • Flooring
  • Construction of earthquake-proof buildings

Read More: 35 + Types Of Wood With Pictures & Use

8. Fired Brick and Clay Blocks

  • Generally, Fired bricks are made from fire clay and are used for high-temperature construction like kilns, and lining furnaces.
  • Fired bricks are manufactured similar to the normal bricks but in a burning process fired bricks are exposed to very high temperatures.
  • Fired bricks weigh about 30 to 35 N.
  • The compressive strength of 200 to 220 kg/cm2.
  • Water absorption varies from 5 to 10%
  • Fires bricks have good chemical resistance properties.
Fire Bricks - Types of Building Materials used in Building Construction
Fire Bricks

Mainly there are 3 types of fired bricks:-

  1. Acidic fire bricks
    • Basic fire bricks
    • Neutral fire bricks


  • The inner surface of kilns, furnaces, and chimneys.
  • Fire resistance structure
  • The lining of wood-fired ovens.

Read More: AAC Block – Manufacturing And Comparison With Red Clay Brick

9. Cement

The cement is a fine powder material, which is been used for a binder the substance and set and harden them or bind the other adheres to other materials together. It old an extensively used and the oldest type of building material.

Cement - Types of Building Materials

Generally, cement is used to bind sand and aggregates together.

In construction, the cement is used for many purposes like:-

  • Cement + sand = Mortar (used for the plastering or brickwork)
  • Cement + sand + aggregates = Concrete (used for slab, columns, footing, beam)
  • Cement slurry (for tile works)
  • Cement paste (for repairing purposes)

Good cement has the following physical properties

  • Fineness
  • Soundness
  • Consistency
  • Strength
  • Setting time
  • Heat of hydration
  • Loss of ignition
  • Bulk density
  • Specific gravity

Cement is in form of powder when it is mixed with water it is set to a hard mass. The setting and hardening result is based on hydration, which is a chemical combination of cement and water.

There are many types of cement are available in the market. All the cement has its own properties and own uses. Generally for building construction, Portland cement is used.

Following are the types of the cement

  • Repaid hardening cement
  • Low heat cement
  • Sulfate resisting cement
  • High alumina cement
  • Blast furnace slag cement
  • Colored cement
  • Pozzolana cement
  • Air entraining cement
  • Expansive cement
  • White cement


  • Cement concrete for the footing, beams, columns, slab, lintels, etc.
  • Cement mortar for brickwork and plastering.
  • Cement is used for making joints of drains and pipes.
  • For watertight structures
  • Cement is used for precast structures like pipes, and piles.
  • Cement is used for important structure like bridges, pipe culverts, dams, and tunnels.
  • Cement is used for RCC roads.

Read More: Which Is Best Cement For House Construction

10. Fabric

In civil engineering, the use of fabric in many places, but nowadays a fabric is used for a fabric structure that provides end users a variety of aesthetic free form building designs.

  • Fabric structures are flame retardant, weather-resistant, and natural forces requirements.
  • Fabric structure is one type of a tensile structure.

In the fabric structure, the fabric used is coated and laminated with synthetic materials for increased strength, durability, and environmental resistance.

Fibreglass fabric - Types of Building Materials
Fiberglass Fabric

The fabric used for the structure is following below:-

  • Polyesters
  • Polyvinyl chloride
  • Woven fiberglass coated with polytetrafluoroethylene.

The fabric has the following strength

  • Tensile strength
  • Tear strength
  • Adhesion strength
  • Flame retardancy

Fabric structures are used in a traditional building in certain scenarios. No lighting is required because the fabric is translucent, which makes it an energyefficient solution.

For determining a material’s suitability for the structure consider the following things:-

  • Shading coefficients
  • General solar, optical, thermal performance data
  • Acoustical data
  • Colourfastness
  • Cleanability


  • Awnings, tents and low tension frames structure
  • Walkways and tent halls and smaller air supported structures
  • Stadium domes

11. Foam

Nowadays, synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam is used in combination with structural materials like concrete.

Foam Insulation - Types of Building Materials
Foam Insulation
  • Foam is a lightweight material.
  • Foam is easily shaped in any form.
  • Foam is a good insulator material.
  • Foam is used in the house as an insulator sandwiched between wood or cement or insulating concrete foam.

Types of Foam

  • Rigid foam
  • Spray foam

The spray foam is a chemical reaction product between the two materials isocyanate and polyresin. The reaction between these two materials expands 30 – 60 times of its liquid volume after it is sprayed in the place.

Expansion of the foam is generally used in the packing material which to shape the product being packaged and produces a high thermal insulating value with virtually no air infiltration.

Following are 3 thermal properties of foam Block:-

  • Conductive heat transfer
  • Radiant heat transfer
  • Convective heat transfer


1. Packaging application

This type of foam is a good packing material that is used in shipping valuable fragile items and also for the protect sculptures, vases, large fossils, lamp bases, busts, computers, or furniture.

2. Building application

Spray foam insulation or spray polyurethane foam:- it is used as an insulator material in houses or buildings.

12. Glass

Glass is a product that is been made with a mixture of sand and silicates, in a very hot fire stove called a kiln and is very brittle. It is one of the widely used types of building materials.

Glass is generally used in the windows to cover the panel of the window with the ability to both let light into the room and while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside.

Glass - Types of Building Materials

Glass is nowadays used for architectural purposes in the building or the elevation of modern buildings.

The curtains walls made from glass are used to cover the entire façade of the building or also use for the span over a wide roof structure in the space frame.

The new invention of GLASS BRICK is used in a building for an elevation purposes.

Following are the types of glass which are used in construction

  1. Float glass
  2. Tinted glass
  3. Toughened glass
  4. Laminated glass
  5. Shatterproof glass
  6. Extra clean glass
  7. Double glazed glass
  8. Chromatic glass
  9. Glass wool
  10. Glass blocks

Applications of Glass in Construction

  • Float glass is used as shop fronts, glass blocks, and railing partitions.
  • Laminated glasses are used in glass facades, bridges, staircases, floor slabs, etc.
  • Shatterproof glass is used in skylights, windows, and flooring.
  • Extra clean glass is used for elevation purposes.
  • The double-glazed glass is used for insulation purposes.
  • Chromatic glass is used in meeting rooms and ICUs.
  • Glass wool is used as a filler or insulator in buildings, it is also used as a soundproof.

13. Gypcrete

As a new building material, gypcrete or gypsum concrete is a mixture of gypsum plaster and fiberglass roving.

It is used as a floor underpayment.

Gypcrete - Types of Building Materials

Gypcrete is generally used in the building in a wood frame and concrete construction with properties of fire ratings, sound reduction, radiant heating, and floor leveling.

The architects and designers have suggested gypcrete as a flooring material nowadays because it has many more good properties and benefits than the other building materials.

Some benefits of the gypcrete are listed below:-

  1. Lightweight
  2. Easy to install
  3. Affordable
  4. Partially fire resistant


  • Flooring
  • Ceilings
  • Rapid wall

14. Metal and Steel

Metal or steel is the second most common building material after concrete. It is one of the most useful and strong types of building materials.

There are many types of metals are present in the market. Following is the list of metals:-

  1. Iron
  2. Cast iron
  3. Steel
  4. Stainless steel
  5. Wrought iron
  6. Aluminum
  7. Bronze
  8. Brass
  9. Lead
Steel roof sheed - Types of Building Materials
Steel Roof Shed

The in construction field steel is a commonly used material. The primary purpose of the steel is to form a skeleton for the building or structure essentially the part of the structure that holds everything up and together.

There are many advantages of steel-like malleability, ductility, elasticity, hardness, brittleness, and conductivity

The steel is also used as a reinforcement in the concrete.it gives the tensile strength to the component. Concrete is poor in tensile strength so steel reinforcement is used.

There are 2 types of steel used in construction:-

  1. Structural steel (mild steel)
  2. High yielding strength Deformed steel

Structural steel is generally used in the construction of steel structures like roofing trusses, skyscrapers, industrial buildings, cold storage, etc.

HYSD steel is used generally to make a bar, which is been used in structural members like beams, columns, footings, etc.

Applications of Steel In Construction

  • Concrete Reinforcement
  • Pipe fittings, manhole covers
  • Floor and wall brackets for railings
  • Circular stairs
  • Door window Grills
  • Ceiling frame or wall framing
  • Roofing and accessories
  • High strength bolts
  • Cables for elevators
  • Wall tiles
  • Kitchen platforms
  • Stair

15. Plastic

Today the use of plastic is more than the other material. Plastic is very light in weight and easies for work and maintenance. It is an important type of building material.

There are many different types of plastics available on the market they all are their own properties and own uses.

Plastic Pipes - Types of Building Materials
Plastic Pipes
  • The following are the properties of the plastic
    • Appearance
    • Chemical resistance
    • Dimensional stability
    • Ductility
    • Durability
    • Electric insulation
    • Finishing
    • Fire resistance
    • Fixing
    • Humidity
    • Maintenance
    • Melting point
    • Recycling
    • Strength
    • Thermal properties

Applications of Plastic

  • Façade panels, exterior covering, carpentry
    • Weather boarding
    • Windows
    • Rolling shutters
    • Wall lining
    • Floor covering
    • Roof covering
    • Roof tightness
    • Sanitary equipment
    • Insulation


Materials Needed to Build a House

The basic materials needed to construct a house are cement, sand, aggregate, and steel. Other materials like timber, PVC pipes, glass, aluminum, paint, asbestos sheet, etc.

List of Materials Needed to Build a House

Following are the materials need to build a house
1. Mud and Clay
2. Clay bricks and Blocks
3. Sand
4. Aggregates
5. Stone and Rock
6. Thatch
7. Wood and Timber
8. Fired Bricks and Clay Blocks
9. Cement
10. Fabric
11. Foam
12. Glass
13. Gypcrete
14. Metal
15. Plastics

What is the Most Used Material In Construction?

Cement is the most used construction material with global cement consumption volume is expected to reach 4.42 billion tons in 2021. It is mostly used to make concrete and mortar for plastering work.

Civil Construction Materials

For civil construction work, the main building materials are cement, sand, aggregate, and steel. The cement is used to make concrete and plasterwork. Sand is used for plastering work and concrete making.

House Construction Materials List

Following is the material list for house construction,
1. Mud and Clay
2. Clay bricks and Blocks
3. Sand
4. Aggregates
5. Stone and Rock
6. Thatch
7. Wood and Timber
8. Fired Bricks and Clay Blocks
9. Cement
10. Fabric
11. Foam
12. Glass
13. Gypcrete
14. Metal
15. Plastics

Building Materials Names

1. Mud and Clay
2. Clay bricks and Blocks
3. Sand
4. Aggregates
5. Stone and Rock
6. Thatch
7. Wood and Timber
8. Fired Bricks and Clay Blocks
9. Cement
10. Fabric
11. Foam
12. Glass
13. Gypcrete
14. Metal
15. Plastics

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6 thoughts on “Building Materials List | Building Construction Materials List | Construction Materials List | Construction Materials Name List with Pictures 2023”

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