what is Gypsum Board and its Types.

What Is Gypsum Board | Properties of Gypsum Board | Application Of Gypsum Board | Types of Gypsum Board

Gypsum Board is one of the widely used construction materials mainly in interior designing works. Due to its properties and various product of gypsum, its uses have become vast in construction industries. Gypsum Board is used as surface material and its applications are prominent in wall and ceiling construction. The use of gypsum can also be done at the field in the form of plaster.

What Is Gypsum Board?

Gypsum Board & Its Types
Gypsum Board

Gypsum board consists of a core of set gypsum surfaced with specifically manufactured paper firmly bonded to the core. It is designed to be used without the addition of plaster of walls, ceilings or partitions and provides a surface suitable to receive either paint or paper.

Gypsum board is extensively used in drywall construction, where the plaster is eliminated. It is also available in the market with one surface covered with aluminum and another surface cover with the heat-reflecting type of foil or with imitation wood grain or another pattern on the exterior surface so that no extra decoration is required.

The different types of gypsum board generally available in the market are clued wallboard, backing board, core board, fire-resistant gypsum board, water-resistant gypsum board, and gypsum form board.

Gypsum board also is known as drywall, plasterboard, or wallboard is used to form panels made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. Gypsum board possesses many attributes that make it an attractive construction material.

Read More: Types Of Building Materials & Their Applications

Properties of Gypsum Board

Due to the following gypsum board properties, the use of gypsum material has become vast in construction industries.                           

1) Fire Resistant of Gypsum

 It is fire resistant in nature. They stop the chances of spreading of fire which ensure life safety. Now, this resistant gypsum against fire is due to the presence of water that is present within gypsum products. Gypsum plasterboard of 15mm thickness would possess almost litres of crystal water within it.

When a fire approaches the water, it undergoes evaporation resulting in a protective layer covering the gypsum product. This would help in stopping the spread of fire to further materials.  

 2) Non-Combustible Property of Gypsum

Heating up of gypsum products results in heating up of water crystals present in the gypsum material. This dehydration of gypsum by heat is called as calculations. The calculations results in a covering over the materials that stop it to undergo combustion and allow the material near them to maintain a lower safer temperature. 

3) Acoustic Property of Gypsum

Gypsum products are constructed to focus more on sound insulation and acoustic properties. Other works like masonry would act well, which is generally used in a higher thickness that now is found less demanding compared to gypsum. For example, instead of a masonry wall of 110mm thickness, we can install drywall of 75mm thickness to achieve the same sound performance.

4) Thermal properties of gypsum

The thermal properties rendered by the gypsum construction would enable good balancing indoor humidity and temperature. Gypsum construction includes cavities, like plasterboard or formwork construction with gypsum gives extra insulation properties. By using plasterboards in interior construction acts as a vapour barrier preventing indoor humidity.

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Gypsum Board Uses

The Following are application of gypsum board,

  • The ability of gypsum to give a comfortable and aesthetic ambiance as a construction material increases the demands of gypsum.
  • It is a natural product that is commonly available. It is free of odor.
  • Nowadays most of the interior and exterior construction features are mostly prepared by gypsum construction or gypsum products.
  • The advancement of gypsum construction in a continuous process is due to its time and cost of construction.
  • With an increase in time, gypsum products gain more properties like increased fire resistance, acoustic properties for noise insulation, etc.

Types of Gypsum Board

Following are the different types of gypsum board used in building construction,

Types of Gypsum Board
Types of Gypsum Board

1) Drywall White Board

Drywall White Board Gypsum Board
Drywall White Board Gypsum Board

Drywall is normally white on one side and brown on the other side. It is probably the most economic drywall type and comes in different sizes ranging in thickness from 3/8 inches to one inch. This is the most usual type used and is normally available in the market in four by eight feet panels.


  • It has high resistant power to resist the moisture condition.
  • Is also used as a tile backer in limited wetting areas such as a bathroom, water closet and basement walls, kitchens and laundry & utility rooms.

2) Backing Gypsum Board

It includes a base in multiple layers in construction works, where several layers of gypsum board are desired for high fire resistance, sound control, and strength in walls. It has grey liner paper on front and back faces and also available in backing board with aluminium foil bonded to the back face. The boards come 16 to 48 in wide, 4 to 16 feet long and ¼ to 1 in thick.


  • Used for walls and ceiling
  • Gypsum plaster blocks used as partitions and as tiles
  • Used for self-leveling screeds
  • Fibreboard with gypsum

3) Water-Resistant Gypsum Board

This type comes with a water-resistant gypsum core and water-repellent face paper. It may be used as a base for wall tile in baths, showers and other areas subject to wetting.


  • Used as a covering material for interior walls and ceilings in residential and commercial buildings.
  • Also, require specific moisture or water-related assemblies.
  • Best suited for both ceiling and drywall partitions in wet areas like bathrooms and kitchen.
  • Used as a base for external soffits in sheltered positions.

4) Fire-Resisting Gypsum Board

Fire-Resisting Gypsum Board & Its Types
Fire-Resisting Gypsum Board

Fire-resisting gypsum board provides good fire protection in buildings due to the unique behavior of the gypsum core when exposed to fire. When a fire-resisting gypsum board protecting building elements that are exposed to fire, the chemically combined water is gradually released in the form of water vapour. This condition is caused in general use if the board or gypsum finish is continuously exposed to a temperature over 49°C.


  • Suitable for applications in ceilings and drywall where a high level of fire protection is required.

Read More: Resilient Flooring & Its Types With Benefits

Advantages of Gypsum Board

There are many outstanding advantages of gypsum as a construction material. Some of the main advantages are listed below:

1) Gives smooth surface: It is used in plaster material if properly done would provide us with a smooth white finish, which is free of cracks, lumps as well as scars. This is the main property and features when it comes to indoor finishing.

2) Balancing the indoor atmosphere: They have a natural power of balancing the indoor climate as well as humidity & temperature.

  • It is environmentally friendly.
  • It has high thermal and acoustic insulation.

3) It provides good aesthetic and functional features: The creativity of architects is boosted by the incorporation of gypsum products, within the budget. It provides a variety of stunning design options.

4) Ease of installation: Using gypsum products, e.g., for internal wall construction, we just need to fix the frame and fill up the joints. The full process is clean, easy and fast and also skilled labours are not required for installation. Use of gypsum plaster as a final finish minimizes the work of additional painting. The white finish itself gives a clean appearance.

4) Variety of gypsum products: A large number of products of gypsum are available in the market to meets several practical and aesthetic requirements. The choice of the right product is made with the help of unique packages that are given by the manufacturers with adequate technical assistance.

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