What Is Shotcreting | Shotcrete Definition | Shotcrete Technology | Shotcrete Wall | Applications of Shotcrete

What Is Shotcrete?

Shotcrete is a method of applying concrete proposed at high velocity primarily on a vertical or overhead surface. It is a mortar or high-performance concrete conveyed through a hosepipe and pneumatically shot at high force at the back surface.

The force of this spraying action leads to compaction of the concrete which then forms layers of concrete to the necessary thickness.

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The impact created by the application consolidates the concrete. Even though the hardened properties of shotcrete are related to those of conservative cast-in-site concrete, the nature of the settlement process results in an excellent bond with most substrates, and rapid capabilities, particularly on composite forms or shapes.

It has proved to be the greatest method for the construction of curved surfaces. Tunnel linings and domes are now much easier to construct with the advent of shotcrete technology.

The shotcrete process needs less formwork and can be more cost-effective than traditionally placed concrete. It is applied by a wet- or dry-mix process. The wet-mix shotcrete method mixes all components with water before the introduction into the delivery hose.

The dry-mix process adds water to the fusion at the nozzle. It is used in repairs and new construction also it is suitable for curved and thin elements.

Read More: Vacuum Concrete – Procedure, Pros & Cons

Shotcrete Technology


  • Cement.
  • Sand (Natural/ Crushed).
  • Coarse Mixture (Below 10mm).
  • Admixture.
  • Water.
  • Fly ash/ Microsilica.

Types of Shotcrete Technology

There are two basic methods.                           

Dry mix shotcrete (DMS)

Wet Mix shotcrete (WMS)

It is based on the period at which the water is added to the concrete mix or mortar. In the Dry mix shotcrete (DMS), water is added at the nozzle, while water is added in the mortar mix or concrete in the wet mix shotcrete (WMS).

1. Dry Mix Process for Shotcrete (DMS)

Dry-mix shotcrete the water is added at the nozzle.”

Dry Mix Process for Shotcrete (DMS)
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The Principle of Dry Mix Shotcrete (DMS)

 Dry Mix Process
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It involves the mixing of cement and wet aggregates at the required ratio before supplying it to the device. The systematically mixed ingredients are placed on the device hopper. For the period of the operation, the mix, under the act of compressed air is taken from the hopper to the nozzle through the delivery hosepipe of the apparatus.

The quantity of water included in the dry-mix process is controlled by the nozzleman. The amount of water is controlled using a valve. In limited access areas, the dry mix process is applied.

Advantages of the Dry Mix Process

  1. Improved Bonding ability and bonding strength.
  2. Water content is controlled at the end of the nozzle.
  3. Less waste is generated during the dry process.
  4. Low investment.

Disadvantages of the Dry Mix Process

  1. Required skilled nozzleman to control the water content mixed through nozzle tuning.
  2. The spraying procedure is tough.
  3. High dust release.
  4. The Water-cement ratio of the mix is based on the nozzleman.
  5. Difficulty in addition to additives.

Read More: 15+ Types Of Admixtures Used In Concrete

2. Wet Mix Process for Shotcrete (WMS)

 Wet Mix Process
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The wet mix process involves the mixing of all components to form concrete or mortar through the required water content. The mix is prepared before placing it in the equipment. The delivery equipment used can be a pneumatic -feed.

The Principle of Wet Mix Shotcrete (WMS)

 Wet Mix Diagram
Wet Mix Process

The procedure involves pushing the wet mix to the nozzle through the delivery hosepipe using compressed air.

The mix shot at the high force on the surface. The mixed ingredient is delivered to the pump using a transit truck.

The rate and amount can be controlled manually. As the wet mix requires transportation facilities. It works in large-area construction.

Advantages of Wet Mix Process

  1. The water content (WC) is managed more accurately.
  2. The cost of the process is lower.
  3. Less labor is required.
  4. The spraying process is easy.
  5. The consumption of air is less.
  6. Additives can be added as per the design requirement.

Disadvantages of the Wet Mix Process

  1. Wastage of materials is high
  2. Transportation of mix will require high control.

Shotcrete Wall

A shotcrete wall is constructed by using a special mix of high-strength concrete, which is sprayed at high velocity on the wall using compressed air, to form a retaining structure, drain, or wall.

shotcrete walls provide a permanent and cost-effective solution for retaining wall construction. Shortcreting on wall strengthens and protect the natural earth embankment as well as covers sheet-piled walls.

Shotcrete Wall Benefits

Shotcrete Wall Benefits are as follows,

  • Provides a permanent solution for retaining wall
  • Shotcreting strengthen and protect the earth’s banks
  • Shotcrete walls are cost-effective compared to normal retaining walls
  • Higher construction speed compared to cast in situ concrete walls
  • ACI specifications are available for shotcrete wall construction
  • Utilize shotcrete technology as an amendment order during construction.
  • It offers High durability, High strength & low permeability
  • As concreting is done very fast with spraying, labour cost is low
  • Provides good bonding strength to the earth’s surface
  • It reduces the use of
  • forming material up to 100%
  • Eliminate the need for extra footing for the retaining wall
  • Reduce the time required for form setting and concrete pouring

Shotcreting Equipment

Shotcreting Equiments
Shotcrete Equipment

Read More: Construction Joints & Types Of Joint In Concrete

Most shotcrete is batched and mixed in the site using transferrable mixing equipment or delivered in trucks from a local ready-mixed plant. The mixing equipment is of the consignment or the continuous type.

In the continuous type, individual ingredients are served to a mixer screw using variable speed augers, belt-feed systems, or a pattern of both. A hopper is occasionally used in high manufacturing units to collect and feed the mixture as necessary.

Water-metering systems are also available to re-dampen the mixture. Batching and mixing equipment must be efficient in maintaining an acceptable and continuous flow of uniform material.

Batching by mass is ideal and will normally be mandatory. Water may be batched by mass or volume.

For minor work, approval may be given to batching by a volumetric container, as long as periodic weight checks are made since many shotcrete jobs have a low production rate and are in isolated locations, mixing is often done by a small drum mixer at the job site.

1. Admixed Dispenser

The additive may be added when required during mixing or at the nozzle, liable on their properties and the form of a shotcrete process (dry or wet).

In the DMS process, dry (powder) admixtures are generally used in the mixture for the period of batching. If a constant feeder gun is being used, they are added directly into the gun hopper by the dispenser.

The dispenser should be capable of metering a defined quantity of admixture, usually 1 to 4 % by mass of the cement, into the mixture, and must be capable of precisely varying the proportion of the admixture to cement.

In the dry-mix process, liquid additives must be used at the nozzle through the mixing water. The additive may be premixed with water and pumped to the nozzle directly into the mixing water at the nozzle.

In the wet-mix process, dry or liquid additives may be added to the mixture once batching provided the pumping properties are not adversely transformed.

As a sample, an accelerator would generate problems if added during batching, while a high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWR) might have positive effects.

In the wet-mix procedure, only liquid admixtures may be added to the air supply at the nozzle. They are balanced to the delivery rate of the mixture through the material hose.

2. Air Compressor

A well-operating air compressor of sufficient capacity is important to a suitable concreting operation. The compressor should sustain a supply of clean, dry, oil-free air suitable for conserving sufficient nozzle velocity for all parts of the work while simultaneously operating all air-driven equipment and a blowpipe for cleaning away reflection.

3. Spraying Nozzle

A dry-mix nozzle characteristically consists of a tip, water ring, control valve, and nozzle body set in an inclusive type of nozzle tips, nozzle sizes, and configurations.

Some investigations have shown better mixing action and less rebound for dry-mix when a unique pre-wetting nozzle is used and the water ring is placed in the hose 1 to 8 feet before the nozzle. This has been mainly effective for silica fume shotcrete.

Applications of Shotcrete

The range of shotcrete for a specific application should be based on information, understanding, and a careful study of necessary and feasible material performance. The achievement of the shotcrete for that application is contingent upon proper scheduling and administration, plus the skill and continuous attention provided by the shotcrete applicator.

1. Repairs

It can be used to repair the damaged surface of concrete, timber, or steel structures provided there is access to the surface needing repair. The following examples specify a few ways in which shotcrete can be used in repairs:

2. Bridges

Its restoration can be used for bridge deck rehabilitation, but it has normally been uneconomic for general full-thickness repairs. It is useful for beam repairs of flexible depths, caps, columns, abutments, wing walls, and under decks from the angle of technique and cost.

Bridge Repair using shotcrete Technology
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3. Buildings

In building maintenance, It is generally used for the restoration of fire and earthquake damage and wear, strengthening walls, and enclosing structural steel for fireproofing.

The restoration of structural members such as beams, columns, and joints is common for structures damaged by an earthquake.

4. Marine Structure

Destruction of marine structures can result from a relapse of the concrete and the reinforcement. Destructive circumstances are erosion of the steel, freezing and defrosting action, bearing loading, structural distress, physical abrasion from the action of waves, sand, gravel, and chemical occurrence due to sulfates.

5. Spillway Surfaces

High-velocity flow may be effective by cavitation erosion or abrasion erosion. Its repairs are beneficial because of the comparatively short outage required to complete the repairs.

Spillway Surface repair using shotcrete
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6. Underground Excavation

It is used in underground excavations in rock; but on occurrence, it has been effectively used in the expansion of tunnels through rehabilitated cohesion-less, and loose soils.

Tunnel Repair
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7. Slope and Surface Protection

It is frequently used for temporary shelter on unprotected rock surfaces that will deteriorate when exposed to the atmosphere.

Slope and Surface Protection using Shotcrete
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It is used to permanently cover slopes that may grind down in time. Slope protection should be appropriately drained to avoid damage from extreme uplift pressure.

8. New Structures

Where large areas and thin sections are involved, shotcreting can be used effectively to save time.

9. Pools and Tanks

Swimming Pool by Shotcrete
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10. Shotcrete Domes

Shotcrete Domes
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In conclusion, the shotcreating is a versatile construction technique which involves pneumatically projecting a mixtures of aggregate, cement and water onto surface at high velocity, and the shotcrete resulting material offers excellent bonding strength and durability, shortcrete technology utilizes specialized equipment to efficiently apply the concrete mixture, allowing for fast construction and precise placement.

Shotcrete walls, provides flexibility in shape and design, making them suitable for various application shotcrete finds extensive use in repairing and rehabilitating structures, constructing retaining walls, creating underground structures such as tunnel, and even in architectural and decorative application. Its biggest advantage is that excellent adhesion, strength, versatility, and rapid construction.


What is shotcreting?

Shotcreting, also known as sprayed concrete, is a construction technique that involves projecting or spraying concrete at high velocity onto a surface. It is commonly used for structural repairs, soil stabilization, and constructing walls, tunnels, and other structures.

What is a shotcrete wall?

A shotcrete wall refers to a wall construction where shotcrete is used as the primary material. It can be either a structural wall or a retaining wall, providing strength, stability, and protection against external elements. Shotcrete walls are known for their flexibility, allowing for complex shapes and designs.

What are the advantages of shotcreting?

Shotcreting offers several advantages, including:
Rapid construction and reduced labor costs.
Excellent bonding and adhesion to various substrates.
Ability to form complex shapes and contours.
High strength, durability, and resistance to weathering.
Versatility in application and adaptability to different project requirements.

What are the applications of shotcrete?

Shotcrete has a wide range of applications in construction, including:
Repair and rehabilitation of deteriorated structures, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings.
Construction of retaining walls, especially in soil stabilization and slope protection.
Creation of underground structures, such as tunnels, subway systems, and mine shafts.
Construction of swimming pools, water tanks, and other water-related structures.
Support systems in excavation and mining operations.
Architectural and decorative applications, such as sculptural elements and artistic finishes.

Watch Video: Shotcrete Concrete Technology

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