Standard Proctor Test of Soil

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus7 min read

Standard Procter Test

Standard Proctor Test is carried out to study or understand the soil’s compaction characteristics with variable moisture content. The test is performed to estimate the maximum load the soil could bear hence ultimately reducing the voids present in the soil.

The Proctor Test is one of the basics test carried upon soil while dealing with soil in geotechnical engineering. Being a basic and easy Proctor Test gives a reliable result for understanding the behaviour of soil.

Read More: Standard Penetration Test (SPT Test) – Procedure, Test Report


What Is Compaction of Soil

Soil compaction is a process in which soil dissipates mechanical stress and condenses. The soil consists of solid particles and water or/and air-filled pots. A more detailed explanation of the three-phase nature in the soil is provided in the soil as a three-phase system. 

When subjected to stress, the soil particles are redistributed within the soil mass and the void volume decreases resulting in condensation. Mechanical stress can be applied through kneading, or by dynamic or static methods.

Benefits Of Compaction of Soil

The following are the major benefits of soil compaction,

  • Increases bearing capacity and stability
  • Permeability (hydraulic conductivity) decreases
  • Freeze-melt cycles have reduced heating
  • Erosion can be controlled
  • Subscription down

History And Use Of Proctor Test

It has been known for a long time that soil moisture, especially Kosiv soils, has a direct effect on how efficiently they can be prepared by construction equipment.

Normally the soil is one of the natural material and the ideal moisture content and maximum dry weight vary for each soil type, the best unit load and ideal moisture content questions cannot be answered.


Proctor Compaction Test

Proctor compaction test measures the maximum unit load that a particular type of soil can be compacted to use a controlled compact force at an optimal water content.

It is the most common laboratory soil test and is the basis for all engineered compact soil placements for embankments, pavements and structural mills. The results of the Proctor test are compared to the measured densities of the compacted filled space to determine the degree of soil density.

Proctor test was invented in 1930 by Ralph R. Proctor, a field engineer at the Bureau of Waterworks and Supplies in Los Angeles, California. This process, which typically simulates in-situ compaction processes performed during the construction of earth dams or embankments, is the most common laboratory test conducted to achieve soil compressibility.

Read More: Specific Gravity of Soil Test with Sample Report


Proctor Compaction Test Apparatus

Apparatus of Standard Proctor Test
Apparatus of Standard Proctor Test

The following are the apparatus used in proctor test of soil,

  • Cylindrical Metal Mold: having internal diameter 4” or 6”, an internal height of 4.6”; and the mold should have a detachable base plate & collar of 2 inches (5.08 cm).
  • Rammer: weighing 5.5 lbs (2.5 kg) & having a fall of 12 inches (30.5 cm), with a flat circular face of 2” diameter.
  • Sensitive Balance: sensitivity ranging from 0.1 gram to 1 gram.
  • Thermostatically controlled oven (105°C  +- 110°C)
  • Steel straight edge.
  • Moisture containers.
  • Sieve No.4.
  • Tray & scoop.
  • Graduated cylinder.
  • Mixing tools. (spoon, trowel, spatula).

Standard Proctor Test Procedure pdf

Proctor test procedure as follows,

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
Proctor Soil Compaction Test Procedure
  1. Take about 20 kg of air-dried soil. Sieve it through 20 mm and 4.7 mm sieve.
  2. Calculate the percentage placed on the 20 mm sieve and 4.75 mm sieve, and the percentage passing through the 4.75 mm sieve.
  3. If the percentage retained on the 4.75 mm sieve is greater than 20, use a larger mould of 150 mm diameter. If it is less than 20%, a standard mould of 100 mm diameter may be used. The following procedure is for standard moulds.
  4. Mix the soil laid on the 4.75 mm strainer and obtain approximately 16 to 18 kg soil samples from the 4.75 mm strainer in the ratio determined in step (2).
  5. Dry and clean the mould and base plate. Smooth them a little.
  6. Weave the mould to the nearest 1 gram with the base plate.
  7. Take about 16 – 18 kg soil samples. If the soil is sandy and if the soil is clay, then add water to bring the amount of water to about 8%.
  8. Keep the soil in an air-tight container for about 18 to 20 hours to mature. Mix the soil well. Divide the processed soil into 6 to 8 parts.
  9. Attach the collar to the mould. Place the mould on a solid base.
  10. Take about 2.5 kg of processed soil, and therefore place it in a mould in 3 equal layers. Take about a third of the volume first, and compact it by giving the rammer 25 snares. The warp should be evenly distributed over the surface of each layer.
  11. The upper surface of the first layer should be scratched with a spatula before placing the second layer. The second layer should also be compressed by 25 blows of the rammer. Likewise, keep the third layer and compact it.
  12. The amount of soil used should be just enough that when the mould is removed, come up about 5 mm from the top of the mould and fill it with mould.
  13. Remove the collar and trim the excess clay project above the mould using a straight edge.
  14. Clean the base plate and mould from outside. Weigh it in the nearest gram.
  15. Remove the soil from the mould. The soil can also be taken out.
  16. Take soil samples to determine the water content from the top, middle and bottom. Determine the amount of water.
  17. Then after add upto 3% water to a fresh portion of the test soil, and repeat steps 10 to 14.

Data Sheet For Compaction Test Of Soil

Diameter of the mould =

Height of mould =

Volume of the mould, V=

Specific gravity of solids, G=


Observation Table:

Sr. No. Observations and Calculations Determination No.
1 2 3
Observations:
1. Mass of empty mold with base plate      
2. Mass of mold, compacted soil, and base plate      
Calculations:
3. Mass of compacted soil M = (2) – (1)      
4. Bulk Density, Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     
5.  Water content, w      
 6. Dry Density,Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     
 7. Void ratio, Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     

where,

ρd = dry density of soil in kg/m3
Gs = specific gravity of the soil to be tested
ρw = density of water in kg/m3
w = water content in percent.

Soil Compaction Test Report

The following is the soil compaction test report,

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus

Image Courtesy: Image1, Image2


FAQs: Standard Proctor test

What is a standard Proctor test?

Standard Proctor Test -Test Performed to know the compaction characteristics of different types of soil with respect to change in moisture content.

Why Standard Proctor test is done?

Proctor Test is performed to study and understand the soil’s compaction characteristics reaching optimal moisture content where soil becomes dense and subsequently gaining its maximum dry density.

Standard Compaction Test

Proctor compaction test measures the maximum unit load that a particular type of soil can be compacted to use a controlled compact force at an optimal water content.

Watch Video: Standard Proctor Test Procedure


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Post Contents Standard Procter TestWhat Is Compaction of SoilBenefits Of Compaction of SoilHistory And Use Of Proctor TestProctor Compaction TestProctor Compaction Test ApparatusStandard Proctor Test Procedure pdfData Sheet For Compaction …

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