Standard Proctor Test of Soil

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus6 min read

Standard Procter Test

Standard Proctor Test is carried out to study or understand the soil’s compaction characteristics with variable moisture content. The test is performed to estimate the maximum load the soil could bear hence ultimately reducing the voids present in the soil.

The Proctor Test is one of the basics test carried upon soil while dealing with soil in geotechnical engineering. Being a basic and easy Proctor Test gives a reliable result for understanding the behaviour of soil.

Read More: Standard Penetration Test (SPT Test) – Procedure, Test Report


What Is Compaction of Soil

Soil compaction is a process in which soil dissipates mechanical stress and condenses. The soil consists of solid particles and water or/and air-filled pots. A more detailed explanation of the three-phase nature in the soil is provided in the soil as a three-phase system. 

When subjected to stress, the soil particles are redistributed within the soil mass and the void volume decreases resulting in condensation. Mechanical stress can be applied through kneading, or by dynamic or static methods.

Benefits Of Compaction of Soil

The following are the major benefits of soil compaction,

  • Increases bearing capacity and stability
  • Permeability (hydraulic conductivity) decreases
  • Freeze-melt cycles have reduced heating
  • Erosion can be controlled
  • Subscription down

History And Use Of Proctor Test

It has been known for a long time that soil moisture, especially Kosiv soils, has a direct effect on how efficiently they can be prepared by construction equipment.

Normally the soil is one of the natural materials and the ideal moisture content and maximum dry weight vary for each soil type, the best unit load and ideal moisture content questions cannot be answered.


Proctor Compaction Test

Proctor compaction test measures the maximum unit load that a particular type of soil can be compacted to use a controlled compact force at an optimal water content.

It is the most common laboratory soil test and is the basis for all engineered compact soil placements for embankments, pavements and structural mills. The results of the Proctor test are compared to the measured densities of the compacted filled space to determine the degree of soil density.

Proctor test was invented in 1930 by Ralph R. Proctor, a field engineer at the Bureau of Waterworks and Supplies in Los Angeles, California. This process, which typically simulates in-situ compaction processes performed during the construction of earth dams or embankments, is the most common laboratory test conducted to achieve soil compressibility.

Read More: Specific Gravity of Soil Test with Sample Report


Proctor Compaction Test Apparatus

Apparatus of Standard Proctor Test
Apparatus of Standard Proctor Test

The following are the apparatus used in proctor test of soil,

  • Cylindrical Metal Mold: having internal diameter 4” or 6”, an internal height of 4.6”; and the mold should have a detachable base plate & collar of 2 inches (5.08 cm).
  • Rammer: weighing 5.5 lbs (2.5 kg) & having a fall of 12 inches (30.5 cm), with a flat circular face of 2” diameter.
  • Sensitive Balance: sensitivity ranging from 0.1 gram to 1 gram.
  • Thermostatically controlled oven (105°C  +- 110°C)
  • Steel straight edge.
  • Moisture containers.
  • Sieve No.4.
  • Tray & scoop.
  • Graduated cylinder.
  • Mixing tools. (spoon, trowel, spatula).

Standard Proctor Test Procedure pdf

Proctor test procedure as follows,

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
Proctor Soil Compaction Test Procedure
  • Collect soil sample weight about 20 kg by passing it through the IS sieve 4.75 mm and 20 mm.
  • Then find out the % of soil sample retain on 20 mm and 4.75 mm sieve. If the % of retained soil on 4.7 mm sieve is more than 20 then choose 150 mm dia mould for test and if the % of soil retained on 4.7 mm sieve is less than 20% then choose 100 mm dia mould for test.
  • Now, combine the % soil passing through 4.75 mm and reatain on 4.75 together to prepare at least 16 to 18 kg of soil sample for test.
  • Take standard procter test mould with base plate dry and clean it properly and apply slight grease inside.
  • Measure weight of mould with base plate at accuracy of 1 gm. (W1)
  • Collect 16-18 kg of soil sample and add water to bring water content in soil up to 4% for sany soil and 8% for clayed type of soil.
  • Preapre at least 6-8 part from whole soil sample.
  • Fix collar on mould and place it on hard surface.
  • Take 2.5 kg from prepared soil sample and fill the mould in 3 eaual layers such that each layer is about 1/3rd of total height of mould. Compact each layer with rammer by giving 25 nos. of blows. The compaction by rammer is done properly such that rammner hit entire area of mould filled with soil.
  • Fill the mould up to top of the collar attached. Once soil is filled up to remove collar from top of mould.
  • Cut down and remove extra soil outing from mould with straight edge.
  • Now weight mould with soil sample as W2.
  • Take out all soil sample from the mould.
  • Collect at least 3 sample of soil for water content determination.
  • Add 3% more water to remainig soil sample and repeat above steps.
  • Do this more 6%, 9% and 12% water content and repeat same stpes.
  • From water content,weight of mould and weight of mould with soil find out bulk density of soil.

Observations from Test

Dia. of the mold =

Mould Height =

Mould Volume, V=

Spe, gravity of soil solids, G=


Observation Table:

Sr. No. Descriptions Smaple No.
1 2 3
Observations:
1. Weight of mould with base plate      
2. Weight of mould with soil sample      
Calculations:
3. Weight of compacted soil M = (2) – (1)      
4. Bulk Density, Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     
5.  Water content, w      
 6. Dry Density,Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     
 7. Void ratio, Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus
     

where,

ρd = dry density of soil in kg/m3
Gs = specific gravity of the soil to be tested
ρw = density of water in kg/m3
w = water content in percent.

Soil Compaction Test Report

The following is the soil compaction test report,

Standard Proctor Test | Protect Compaction Test | Compaction Test | Lab Report | Apparatus

Image Courtesy: Image1, Image2


FAQs: Standard Proctor test

What is a standard Proctor test?

Standard Proctor Test -Test Performed to know the compaction characteristics of different types of soil with respect to change in moisture content.

Why Standard Proctor test is done?

Proctor Test is performed to study and understand the soil’s compaction characteristics reaching optimal moisture content where soil becomes dense and subsequently gaining its maximum dry density.

Standard Compaction Test

Proctor compaction test measures the maximum unit load that a particular type of soil can be compacted to use a controlled compact force at an optimal water content.

Watch Video: Standard Proctor Test Procedure


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Post Contents Standard Procter TestWhat Is Compaction of SoilBenefits Of Compaction of SoilHistory And Use Of Proctor TestProctor Compaction TestProctor Compaction Test ApparatusStandard Proctor Test Procedure pdfObservations from TestObservation Table:Soil …

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