What is Total Station ? Its Accessories & Uses in Surveying

What Is Total Station | Components of Total Station | Advantages of Total Station | How to Use Total Station In Surveying | Uses of Total Station | Types of Total Station

What Is Total Station?

A Total Station is an electrical and digitally operated surveying instrument used for measurement and survey work. It is a gainful instrument for estimating points like even and vertical, and distance.

The Total station which is used in surveying for the measurement of field data consists of the Electromagnetic Distance Measuring & Electronic Theodolite.

What is total Station

It empowers the field advances with specialized features and apparatus that are trusty and trustworthy in requesting field circumstances.

Read More: What Is Surveying? 23 Different Types of Surveying Equipment


Components of Total Station

The following are major total station parts

  • Electronic transit theodolite
  • Electronic distance meter (EDM)
  • Microprocessor
  • Electronic data collector & storage system
  • Keyboard: It is an essential accessory of the Total station, for providing the order to the microprocessor inbuilt in the Total station which contains different order keys. These keys incorporate switching keys, command keys, lighting keys, power keys, and so on.
  • Data Collector: The data collector collects and stores the information or perceptions. The entire activity of taking in-out and putting away information is constrained by the information gatherer.
  • Reflectors: The reflector is quietly the most fundamental function of the Total station. This is because of the Total station capacities or takes the estimations using the reflected beams. The reflector involves an exceptionally constructed reflecting crystal comprised of shapes or squares of reflecting glasses.
  • Software: In the majority of the Total station, the working system utilized is Windows CE.
  • In addition to the significant parts, the Total station likewise needs some extra function keys. Such include the control panel, keyboard, data collectors, memories, etc.
Parts of total Station
Total Station Parts

Advantages of Total Station

The following are major benefits of using total station in surveying,

1. Ease of Use

This instrument is easy & instinctive to use. They can measure the distance and horizontal estimations at the same time, and they make it simple to compute northing-easting (co-ordinates).

Along these lines, the surveyor can occupy a greater amount of their time and energy on basic designing and insightful issues.

2. Speedy Work

Total stations can collect the information very quickly, so the surveyor can get in and out of the field efficiently and quickly.

3. Convenience

The total station offers a quick and convenient setup. By means of using a total station, the surveyor can work and take multiple surveys from one station point.

4. Accuracy:

The total station is more accurate to a fraction of an arc second as well as to measure distances to hundredths of a foot over thousands of feet.

5. CAD interface

Total station can without much of a stretch download review information to a PC helped drawing (CAD) program.

6. Avoids Manual Mistakes

Fieldwork is done extremely quickly and manual mistakes associated with fieldwork and recording are eliminated.

7. Fast Calculations

The calculation of coordinates is very fast & accurate. Even corrections for temperatures and pressures are automatically made.

8. Easy Computer Integration

Map-making, plotting contour, and cross-sections may get by using raw data in computers. Scales & contour intervals can be changed in no time.


How to Use Total Station In Surveying

The following are steps involved in use of total station in surveying,

1. Setting Up Tripod

Setting up of total station
Setting up Total Station

The tripod legs are fixed such that they are spaced equally. The Head of the tripod stand should likewise be in level (roughly). The situation of the standing head should be fixed so that the top of the mount lies precisely over the station mark.

2. Mounting Total Station On The Tripod

Putting total station on tripod
Mounting Total Station On The Tripod

After the Total station has been fixed to a particular point, the Total station is then mounted on the stand. With one hand, the instrument is supported over the stand while with the other hand, the centering screw should be fixed.

3. Focusing The Survey Point

Focusing on the point to be surveyed is then done by the means of the optical plummet.

4. Leveling The Total Station

Then, the leveling foot screws are changed to such an extent that the review point lies halfway on the optical drive. The tripod legs are additionally changed so that bubble lies in the center.

Leveling total station

First of all, the air bubble is adjusted corresponding to the two-foot screws and brought to the middle by turning both the screws in a similar course. From that point forward, the air bubble is adjusted corresponding to the excess foot screw and brought to the middle by turning the screw. This arrangement of the method is repeated various times until the air bubble stays in the central position.

5. Verifying The Leveling Electronically

Firstly, the instrument is turning on after pressing & holding the “ON” button given on the keypad. A blare is heard once the instrument is turned on. After the screen is shown, the function is chosen. The foot level screws are then changed so the electronic bubble is likewise focused. Again the instrument is pivoted at 90 degrees and the cycle is repeated.

6. Adjusting The Image & Focusing The Cross-Hair

Focusing The Cross-Hair of total station
Adjusting The Image & Focusing The Cross-Hair

Horizontal and vertical cinches are then released and the telescope is pointed at any light foundation that is featureless. At that point, the cross-hair is changed until the picture turns out to be perfectly focused.

At that point, the telescope is centered on the objective and the center ring is changed until the objective is particularly focused. The evacuation of parallax is then guaranteed by moving the head gradually aside.

7. Taking The Measurements

Taking reading on total station
Taking Total Station Reading

Once time, the above steps have been completed, the total station can be used to take the measurements or observations.

Read More: Top 15 Civil Engineering Softwares


Types of Station

The following are various total station types used in surveying,

1. Mechanical Total Stations

Mechanical Total Station
Mechanical Total Station

Mechanical total stations are reliable and accurate, and they make surveying quick and easy. They don’t offer remote control operation & automated features, however, the operation typically requires two people.


2. Robotic Total Stations

Robotic Total Station
Robotic Total Station

These Total stations take into account more innovative accommodation. They give broadened controller capacities and need just a single operator, and they take into consideration expanded security in the testing landscape due to their novel capacity to work a good way off.


3. Prism Total Stations

Both the mechanical & robotic total stations come under prism models. These total stations are more traditional than the above two models, and they are still more commonly used. This Total station use prisms to reflect infrared waves and then determines angles & distance by measuring the prism’s location.


4. Reflector

Less Total Stations: Bothmechanical and robotic total stations come under reflector-less versions as well. These total stations of the newer model are useful for taking measurements in challenging circumstances. This type of total station can work in difficult terrain or in places where you can’t reach on foot, and they don’t require the use of a prism.


Uses of Total Station in Surveying

Followings are major total station uses in the field of surveying,

1. Distance Measuring

One of the main employments of the Total station is distance measuring. It is very well utilized for distance estimation by utilizing a regulated transporter infrared signal. This signal can ascertain the distance after it is reflected back by the object under survey.

Such infrared transporter signal is brought out by the Total station utilizing a strong state producer and the translation of the reflected signal is completed by utilizing the processing chip inbuilt in the Total station itself.

2. Angle Measurement

The most significant utilization of the Total station is the measurements of angle between two points. These precise estimations are finished by utilizing the electrical and optical filtering arrangement of the telescope.

This framework is furnished with turning glass that contains the scanner lenses. In the digital Total stations, readings are straightforwardly recorded and put away in the principal memory of the Total station. The recorded information saved in memory can be moved to a computer for final mapping.

3. Co-ordinate Determinations

It is additionally a significant use of the Total station is to decide the area of the necessary field. For example, the Total station can be utilized to compute the X, Y, Z coordinates of any points.

4. Mining

Before the initiation of any mining work, a mining survey work must be finished. The Total station is a significant instrument utilized for this reason.

5. Civil Engineering Construction Works

Almost all types of civil engineering construction and related work can be done using the total station.

It can be used for making the maps and plans, demarcating the property lines, land surveying, determining the alignment of roads, bridges, tunnels, etc.


Total Station Price

Total station price is ranges from 1 lakh to 10 lakh depending upon features included in it.

Precautions to be Taken While Using Total Station

The following precautions must be taken while using a total station on the field,

  1. The total station must be handled properly and held by both hands.
  2. The tripod must be held on a stable surface as far as possible and practicable.
  3. The charged battery pack must be kept along with the battery discharged.
  4. The tripod with the total station mounted on it must not be carried from one station to another station.
  5. When the tribrach has been removed from the total station, it should be handled carefully.

Image Courtesy: Image1, Image2, Image3, Image4, Image5, Image6, Image7


FAQs:

Total Station

A Total Station is an electrical and digitally operated surveying instrument used for measurement and survey work. It is a gainful instrument for estimating points like even and vertical, and distance.

Working Principle of Total Station In Surveying

Reflectorless fitted in total stations measure distances between to two points that are reasonably light in color, to a few hundred meters. It also provides data of the co-ordinate of the instrument position and bearing of a backward station the coordinates of any other point can be computed.

Functions of Total Station

Data Collector: The data collector collects and stores the information or perceptions. The entire activity of taking in-out and putting away information is constrained by the information gatherer.
Reflectors: The reflector is quietly the most fundamental function of the Total station. This is because of the Total station capacities or takes the estimations using the reflected beams.

Least Count of Total Station

 The least count of total station for angle is 1” & Distance is 1mm. The total station is one of the most accurate instruments in surveying.

Watch Video: How to Use Total Station?


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