Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering

5 Types of Stairs | Types of Staircase | Types of Stairs In Civil Engineering9 min read

What Is Stair?

Stairs are an essential component of any structure having multiple floors. In fact, staircases and stairs have been around nearly as long as humans. The major function of stairs in the building is to provide ease of moving from one level to the next without much thought.

There are different types of stairs used in building are 1. Straight Stairs, 2. L Shaped Stairs, 3. U Shaped Stairs, 4. Winder Stairs, 5. Spiral Stairs, 6. Curved Stairs, 7. Cantilever Stairs, 8. Split Staircase.

Staircase Definition in Civil Engineering

Stairs are a series of steps properly arranged to connect different floors of a building. Different types of stairs used in construction as per requirement.

Read More: 25+ Staircase Components with Function


6 Types of Stairs

Following are different staircase types used in building,

  1. Straight flight stairs
  2. Quarter turn stairs
  3. Dog-Legged Stairs
  4. Open Newel Stairs or Open Well Staircase
  5. Three quarter turn stairs
  6. Circular stairs
  7. Spiral stairs
  8. Bifurcated stairs

1. Straight Flight Stairs

Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
Straight flight stairs

These are continuous stairs along which there is no change in direction on any flight between two successive floors.

The stair may consist of either one single flight or more than one flight (usually two) with a landing. These types of staircases sometimes have only 1 flight of stairs.

These types of stairs are used for houses where there are restrictions in available width for its location, but enough length is available. As there is no change in direction, risers facing the ascending person cause uneasiness and monotony.

Straight flight stairs with a landing may further increase the length of stairs and had very little advantage.


2. Quarter Turn Stairs

When the direction of the flight is changed at right angles either to the left or to the right, quarter-turn stairs are used. The change in direction can be affected by either introducing a quarter space landing or providing winders at the junction of two flights.

Half turn stairs: Half turn stair is the one that has its direction reversed or turned through 180° by introducing a half-space landing or winders. This type of stairs is commonly used in residential buildings and public buildings. These may be of two types:

a) Dog-legged stairs b) Open newel stairs or Open well stairs.

Read More: Estimation Of A Building With Plan


3. Dog-Legged Stairs

This name is given because of its appearance in sectional elevation. A dog-legged stair is called from its being bent or crooked suddenly round in fancied resemblance to dog’s hind leg.

Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
Dog-legged Types of stairs

The dog-legged stairs consist of two flights of steps that run in opposite directions. No space is provided between the flights in the plan.

Usually, a half-space landing placed across the two flights at the change of direction. This type to accommodate two widths of flights of the stair is useful where the width of the stair hall is just sufficient

Read More: Dog-Legged Staircase Details and Design Calculation


4. Open Newel Stairs or Open Well Staircase

Open newel staircase is very similar to a doglegged stair. There is a well opening between the flights and it may be used to accommodate a lift.

The width of the stair would therefore be twice the width of the stair plus the width of the good hole or opening (1500 mm to 10,000 mm). Open newel stairs require more space than a dog-legged stair.

Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
Open Well Staircase

At the head and foot of each flight of the stair, newel posts are placed which form a conspicuous architectural feature for the stair to be called newel stair.


5. 3 Quarter Turn Staircase

5 Types of Stairs | Types of Staircase | Types of Stairs In Civil Engineering
Three quarter turn stairs

3 quater turn staircase type of stairs change their directions 3 times i.e., through 270° with its upper flight crossing the bottom one, In general, in this type of construction, a bigger open well is formed.


6. Circular Stairs

Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering

In these stairs, all the steps radiate from a central point of a semi-circle (in plan) in the form of winders. The circular stair is commonly provided at the entrance of a building for a better architectural appearance. These are commonly constructed in R.C.C. and brick.


7. Spiral Types of Stairs

5 Types of Stairs | Types of Staircase | Types of Stairs In Civil Engineering
Spiral Types of Stairs

These stairs consist of same-sized winders provided at a constant deflecting angle to offer a continuous change in direction along within elevation. They radiate around a central newel post and occupy the least space.

The overall diameter of such stairs (winders) may range from 1 m to 2.5 m. The stairs are not comfortable as they are full of winders and continuously change the direction.

When the available space is too small and the number of users is limited, this type of stair is constructed with cast iron or R.C.C.

Read More: Staircase Calculation for Reinforcement


8. Bifurcated Stairs

This type of stair is very common in modern aristocratic symmetric public buildings at their entrance in which appears as a prominent feature.

The stair has a wide flight at the bottom, which bifurcates into two narrower flights, one turning to the left and the other to the right at the landing.

5 Types of Stairs | Types of Staircase | Types of Stairs In Civil Engineering
Bifurcated stairs

It is a combination of two quarter-turn stairs symmetrically arranged.

The most common type of stair which is provided in residential houses is the dog-legged type. Open well type and bifurcated type stairs are provided n public buildings.

Geometrical type stair is provided to give the better appearance, straight flight type stirs are most commonly used in residential buildings.

Three-quarter turn stairs are adopted in special cases as in posh hotels with a very wide staircase room incorporating reception in between. It may also be provided in palaces of more headroom to create a spacious and majestic look.

Spiral stairs are provided when space is not available for common types of stairs. It is provided at the back of the buildings for sweepers or servants for cleaning the bathroom, w. c., etc.


Features of Stairs

A continuous series of steps form a flight and there may be two or more flights between platforms called landings.

The horizontal upper portion of a step is called a Tread and the vertical or front portion of a step called a Riser. These are supported by inclined boards called different types of stairs.

Types of Stairs in Civil Engineering
Stairs

Proper sizes of treads, risers, newel posts, handrails, and balusters are designed for stairs to provide comfort and safety to the persons using them for easy and quick access to the various floors.

Flights of stairs and landings encased on either side by balustrade are called a staircase. The opening or space occupied by the stair is known as a stairway.

The means of communication between the various floors can be also provided by lifts, ramps, ladders, and escalators.

The materials used in the construction of stairs are stone, steel, wood, R.C, and cast iron.

Fire protection of the staircase is extremely important, particularly in multi-storeyed buildings. Staircases not only provide access and communication but also are a path for the spreading of fire from one floor to another.

Also, people of higher floors rush down the stairs during a fire hazard. Lifts are easily paralyzed then. Staircase therefore must be enclosed by fire-resistant walls, floors, ceilings, and doors. It is desirable that the linings to the walls and ceiling are non-combustible.


FAQs:

Staircase Meaning

It is a set of steps surrounded by a wall.

Types of Stairways

8 staircases types used in building are
1. Straight flight stairs
2. Quarter turn stairs
3. Dog-Legged Stairs
4. Open Newel Stairs or Open Well Staircase
5. Three quarter turn stairs
6. Circular stairs
7. Spiral stairs
8. Bifurcated stairs

Stair Landing

A landing in the staircase is an area of a floor close to the top or bottom step of a stair. An intermediate landing is a small passage that is built as part of the stair between main floor levels and is typically used to allow stairs to change directions, or to allow the user a rest

Which type of staircase is best?

Here are the top staircase design types to consider for your building.
1. Straight flight stairs
2. Quarter turn stairs
3. Dog-Legged Stairs
4. Open Newel Stairs or Open Well Staircase
5. Three quarter turn stairs
6. Circular stairs
7. Spiral stairs
8. Bifurcated stairs

Watch Video: Types of Stairs Architecture


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