There are Different Types of Stairs used in construction. Stairs are one most essential and important components of any habitant structure in civil engineering.
Staircase Definition in Civil Engineering: Stairs are a series of steps properly arranged to connect different floors of a building. Different types of stairs used in construction as per requirement.
Silent Features Of Steps
- A continuous series of steps form a flight and there may be two or more flights between platforms called landings.
- The horizontal upper portion of a step called a Tread and the vertical or front portion of a step called a Riser. These are supported by inclined boards called different types of stairs.
- Proper sizes of treads, risers, newel posts, handrails, and balusters are designed for stairs to provide comfort and safety to the persons using them for easy and quick access to the various floors.
- Flights of stairs and landings encased on either side by balustrade are called a staircase. The opening or space occupied by the stair is known as a stairway.
- The means of communication between the various floors can be also provided by lifts, ramps, ladders, and escalators.
- The materials used in the construction of stairs are stone, steel, wood, R.C, and cast iron.
- Fire protection of the staircase is extremely important, particularly in multi-storeyed buildings. Staircases not only provide access and communication but also are a path for the spreading of fire from one floor to another.
- Also, people of higher floors rush down the stairs during a fire hazard. Lifts are easily paralyzed then. Staircase therefore must be enclosed by fire-resistant walls, floors, ceilings, and doors. It is desirable that the linings to the walls and ceiling are non-combustible.
Read More: 25+ Staircase Components with Function
Types of Stairs In Civil Engineering
Following are different types of staircase in civil engineering,
- Straight flight stairs
- Quarter turn stairs
- Three quarter turn stairs
- Circular stairs
- Spiral stairs
- Bifurcated stairs
1) Straight Flight Stairs
- These are continuous stairs along which there is no change in direction on any flight between two successive floors.
- The stair may consist of either one single flight or more than one flight (usually two) with a landing. These types of staircase sometimes have only 1 flight of stairs.
- These types of stairs used for houses where there are restrictions in available width for its location, but enough length is available. As there is no change in direction, risers facing the ascending person cause uneasiness and monotony.
- Straight flight stairs with a landing may further increase the length of stairs and had very little advantage.
2) Quarter Turn Stairs
- When the direction of the flight is changed at right angles either to the left or to the right, quarter-turn stairs are used. The change in direction can be affected by either introducing a quarter space landing or providing winders at the junction of two flights.
- Half turn stairs: Half turn stair is the one that has its direction reversed or turned through 180° by introducing a half-space landing or winders. This type of stairs is commonly used in residential buildings and public buildings. These may be of two types:
a) Dog-legged stairs b) Open newel stairs or Open well stairs.
(a) Dog-Legged Stairs:
- This name is given because of its appearance in sectional elevation. A dog-legged stair is called from its being bent or crooked suddenly round in fancied resemblance to dog’s hind leg.
- These types of stairs dog-legged generally consist of two flights of steps that run in opposite directions. No space is provided between the flights in the plan.
- Usually, a half-space landing placed across the two flights at the change of direction. This type to accommodate two widths of flights of the stair is useful where the width of the stair hall is just sufficient
(b) Open Newel Stairs or Open Well Staircase
- Open newel staircase is very similar to a doglegged stair. There is a well opening between the flights and it may be used to accommodate a lift.
- The width of the stair would therefore be twice the width of the stair plus the width of the good hole or opening (1500 mm to 10,000 mm). Open newel stairs require more space than a dog-legged stair.
- At the head and foot of each flight of the stair, newel posts are placed which form a conspicuous architectural feature for the stair to be called newel stair.
3) 3 Quarter Turn Staircase
- 3 quater turn staircase type of stairs change their directions 3 times i.e., through 270° with its upper flight crossing the bottom one, In general, in this type of construction, a bigger open well is formed.
4) Circular Stairs
- In this type of stairs, all the steps radiate from a central point of a semi-circle (in plan) in the form of winders. The circular stair is commonly provided at the entrance of a building for better architectural appearance. These are commonly constructed in R.C.C. and brick.
5) Spiral Types of Stairs
- These stairs consist of same-sized winders provided at a constant deflecting angle to offer a continuous change in direction along within elevation. They radiate around a central newel post and occupy the least space.
- The overall diameter of such stairs (winders) may range from 1 m to 2.5 m. The stairs are not comfortable as they are full of winders and continuously change the direction.
- When the available space is too small and the number of users is limited, this type of stair is constructed with cast iron or R.C.C.
Read More: Staircase Calculation for Reinforcement
6) Bifurcated Stairs
- This type of stair is very common in modern aristocratic symmetric public buildings at their entrance in which appears as a prominent feature.
- The stair has a wide flight at the bottom, which bifurcates into two narrower flights, one turning to the left and the other to the right at the landing.
- It is a combination of two quarter-turn stairs symmetrically arranged.
- The most common type of stair which is provided in residential houses is the dog-legged type. Open well type and bifurcated type stairs are provided n public buildings.
- Geometrical type stair is provided to give the better appearance, straight flight type stirs are most commonly used in residential buildings.
- Three-quarter turn stairs are adopted in special cases as in posh hotels with a very wide staircase room incorporating reception in between. It may also be provided in palaces of more headroom to create a spacious and majestic look.
- Spiral stairs are provided when space is not available for common types of stairs. It is provided at the back of the buildings for sweepers or servants for cleaning the bathroom, w. c., etc.
Watch Video: Types of Stairs Architecture
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