What Is BoQ?
BoQ means a bill of quantity is a document prepared by a cost estimator to calculate the exact cost of project work by multiplying item work by their rate.
It is the most important document for tendering and contracting. Bill of quantity gives an idea about the cost of a project that is tendering firm willing to offer.
This information is important for them to fill a higher or lower rate with respect to their rate while contracting. It is popularly known as BOQ.
What Is BoQ Meaning?
BoQ means “Bill of Quantity” and is a document prepared by a cost estimator to calculate the exact cost of project work by multiplying item work by their rate. It is the most important document for tendering and contracting.
Types of BoQ In Construction
Types of Bill of Quantities (BOQ) in Construction are given below,
1. Bill of Materials
In this document, only material costing is estimated from the material quantity and their unit rate. For example, the Cement quantity is 400 bags for the project and its rate per bag is 300 Rs. So, its estimated cost will be,
= 400 x 300 = 12000 Rs.
2. Bill of Labour
In this document, only labor costing is estimated from labor quantity and their per-day rate. For example, if 5 laborers are required to complete any work in 2 days on-site and they are per day wages are 400 Rs, then the cost of labor will be,
= 5 x Rs .400 x 2 days = 4000 Rs.
Read More: Estimation Of A Building With Plan
Purpose of Preparing Bill of Quantity (BOQ)
- It is useful in cost planning before tendering process.
- Tendering – BOQ with an empty unit rate is given to contractors or bidders. They fill rate as per their cost and the bidder with the lowest cost is announced as the winner. (also based on other qualification criteria).
- It provides a basic idea to investors about the cost of the project.
- It provides a basis for the valuation of variation. (Variation is to be discussed in detail).
Format of Bill of Quantity
Generally, the Bill of quantity is prepared in an excel sheet. There is also some bill of quantities software like Pro core, Assemble, and Spectrum.
But the format of the bill of quantity is fixed even in the software only difference is that the software does the auto calculation and whereas in the excel sheet you have to use excel formulas to calculate.
BOQ format includes Sr. No, Description of an item of work, Numbers, Quantity of material or labor, and Total Quantity with their suitable unit. An example of a bill of quantity for construction in excel sheet format is given below,
How To Prepare BOQ?
1) Estimating the Quantity of Material
Suppose, the following is the bill of quantities sample for a house,
|Item No.||Item Description||Quantity|
|1||Excavation in foundation||39.79 m³|
|2||Cement concrete in the foundation||11.33 m³|
|3||First-class brickwork up to plinth in C: M (1:3)||21.80 m³|
|4||Damp-proof course (1:2:4) above plinth walls||10.92 m²|
|5||Earth filling in plinth||14.81 m³|
|6||R.C.C. work for Slab (1:1.5:3)||4.23 m³|
|7||Brickwork for steps||0.216 m³|
|8||Mosaic tile for flooring||23.64 m²|
|9||Woodwork for doors and windows||19.74 m²|
|10||Smooth plaster on inside walls and ceiling||58.17 m²|
|11||Brickwork for parapet wall 200 thick||5.92 m³|
2) Finding Out Unit Rate For Various Items of Work
The unit rate for a different item of construction is given in SOR (Schedule of Rate). SOR is a document that has a list of various items of work.
It helps in the preparation of estimates and also serves as a guide in setting rates in connection with contract agreements, a schedule of rates for all items of work is maintained in the form of printed books as a Schedule of Rate(SOR).
The schedule of rates consists of a group of items such as excavation items, concrete items, masonry items, demolition items, plumbing items, electrification items, etc.
As the rate of items mentioned in the schedule of rates is likely to vary, the SOR is periodically revised, usually after 3 years.
The Public Works Department (CPWD), a premier construction organization of the government of India, maintains a printed schedule of rate books for various items of work, and an estimate is prepared with these rates.
This SOR contains a rate of about 2500 to 3000 items. In the CPWD – SOR the items are covered under different subheads like building work, road work, water supply, sanitary items, etc.
The rate of the finished item is worked out by the analysis of the rate with the standard requirement of materials, labor, equipment, and necessary sundries like water charges, contractors’ profit, etc.
A sample of SOR Books and BOQ for civil works with a rate of 2021 is given below,
Read More: Top 10 Civil Engineering Site Work
Example of Bill of Quantity (Boq) for Construction Excel Sheet
The Bill of quantities example for construction calculation is given below,
Advantages of Bill of Quantity
The following are the major advantages of a Bill of Quantity(BOQ)
1. It Provides Details of the Work
In BOQ full details of an item of work are given with their quantity, which gives the bidder a fair idea about the project work.
2. It Offers Evaluation and Comparison Opportunities
The details of all the items of work are specified in BOQ, which will help in evaluating it thoroughly. It helps in tendering process with the facility of comparing each contractor on the basis of each item. Hence we will get the best deal.
3. Helps in Defecting Problem Before Work Starts
It includes full project work detail, which is useful to identify future problems. Thus we can find future problems and search for possible solutions for those problems.
4. Better Project Planning
As we know planning the project is the most important task in that BOQ plays a very crucial role in the planning of a project.
In the bill of quantity items of work with their quantities are listed, thus half of the work of the planner is already done. The project planner only has to arrange resources and set the duration of work completion, planning is done.
5. Provide Advanced Time to Find Good Suppliers
As we have the material quantity, we have plenty of time to identify the suppliers and do negotiate with them. Ultimately, it will result in saving project costs.
6. No Guesswork:
Bill of quantity provides exact and real information and eliminates any kind of guesswork. Guesswork is not recommended in project work. BOQ is necessary for the smooth running of the project.
7. It is an Efficient Tool for Limiting the Time Frame
It becomes an essential and efficient tool in project management. As we know the quantity of material so we will arrange it on time. Thus the project works completely within the time limit.
8. It Helps in Reducing Construction Cost
The cost and Time of construction projects are extensively correlated with each other. As we complete the project in a given time period costs will reduce.
9. Better Project Management Tool
It is one of the proven best project management tools which offers ease for the management when they are fully aware of the items/components, suppliers, time frame, etc.
In BOQ every item of work and their quantity with rate are given, hence everything automatically becomes transparent. There are no chances of corrupt practices.
Q.1 How to calculate Steel?
1. Weight of the bar in kg/meter should be calculated as (d2 ÷ 162) where‘d’ is the diameter of the bar in mm.
2. ‘L‘ for column main steel in footing should be considered as a minimum of 30cm/as specified.
3. For bent up bar add 0.42d in a straight length of the bar where’d’ is the clear depth of the beam/slab.
Q.2 What is a Bill of Quantities?
A Bill of Quantities (BOQ or BQ) is documentation established to define the quality and quantity of work required to be carried out by the main contractor to complete a project. It is prepared by a quantity surveyor or cost consultant.
Q.3 What is the purpose of a Bill of Quantity?
Various Purposes of the Bill of Quantity are listed below:
1. It is useful in cost planning before tendering process.
2. Tendering- useful in passing important construction tenders.
3. It provides a basic idea to investors about the cost of the project.
4. It provides a basis for the valuation of variation.
Q.4 What is the meaning of BOQ in a tender?
BOQ stands for Bill of Quantities in Tendering. Bill of Quantity gives an idea about the cost of a project that is tendering firm is willing to offer. This information is important for them to fill a higher or lower rate with respect to their rate while contracting.
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