Introduction To Steel Piles
Steel sheet pipe piles and steel pipe piles are widely used in large construction sites such as harbors, bridge construction, retaining walls, cofferdam, pile foundation, and others.
Steel piles are more suitable for soft thick ground. Because in this type of soil the bearing strata are available in the deeper layer.
Steel piles are more economical as compare to other piles. because it is easy to customize, easy to transport, and easy to connect Generally, steel piles are used in pile foundations.
where H- Section pile and I–section piles are used. In H- section thickness of flange and web are the same and vice versa in I-Section both, the thickness of flange and web is different.
Types of Steel Pile for Deep Foundations
1. Pipe Piles
Open–Ended Pile: As the name suggests driven pile end is open. Usually, it is useful in the rock or hard state. the open–ended piles are sunk into the soil.
The soil that is inside the steel pile is removed with the help of water jetting and compressed air .then after the pile is driven into the required depth; the steel pile is filled with concrete.
Close end pile: In the case of closed–end piles, the driving end of each pipe is closed by welding. The material of the shoe is made of steel or cast iron which is used at the end of the pile as a pile shoe.
Once the close–end pile is driven into the soil. After that pile is filled with the required amount of concrete. The thickness of the pile is ranging from 8 mm to 12 mm and the diameter of the pile ranges from 0.25mm to 1.2 mm.
2. Screw Piles or Helical Piles
The screw piles are made up of cast iron or steel. These piles make a long shaft which end is either helical form or screw base.
The external diameter of the shaft is ranging from 15 cm to 30 cm and the diameter of the screw base ranging is 45cm to 150 cm.
Screw piles shaft may be hollow or solid. Installation of the pile into the ground is with the help of an electric motor. It is suitable for loose sand and loose clay.
These types of soil screw piles are help to increasing load–bearing capacity. The biggest advantage of a screw pile is easy to installation
3. Disc Steel Piles
Disc steel pile arrangement is similar to the screw piles, screw pile consists of solid cast iron pile which attached cast–iron disc to its foot.
So that foot is helpful to increase the bearing area of the pile. Generally used in marine construction.
During penetration, the pile sinks into the ground. So that water jetting process is made in the bottom of the pile. This type of pile is suitable in soft and sandy soil.
Which is allowing to the sinking of the pile by water jetting. It is mostly used in marine construction where the total penetration of the pile in the ground is required to be large.
The rolled steel H- pile acts as a bearing pile which is a newly developed technology in the pilling industry. H piles produce large impact stress during hard driving.
H–Pile is generally used in hard strata like rocky areas. Also H– pile has a small cross–sectional area of the pile is made it easier to soil displacement. So that no extra process of jetting, coring is required for penetration of H–pile.
Advantages of H-Piles
- H– Piles produce a small amount of displacement.
- H-piles required small space for storage.
- H-piles are handled easily.
- H- Pile is generally used in the construction of retaining walls, cofferdam and bridges, and bulkheads.
- H-piles penetration can be performed closer to the existing structure.
- In the H-pile splicing process can be done easily.
- H–pile can penetrate the ground is up to 100m depth.
- H -piles act as friction and compaction piles.
Corrosion of Steel Piles Steel
Piles are embedded in an impervious layer of the earth, at least 2 ft below the level of the ground, will generally be free of corrosive effects because of insufficient oxygen in the atmosphere.
In an Embedded portion of the steel, piles may be affected by corrosion. Because the surrounding layer consists of cinder fills, coal, alkaline soils, wastes from plants, etc.
Electric deterioration of the steel piles can be protected by the use of protecting layer or coating like coal, paint and epoxy layering, etc.
Durability of Steel pile
In many cases rate of corrosion is less at that time protective method is not needed and in other cases rate of corrosion is high at that time a protective method is used for piles.
The following methods are used:
- To apply coating layer on the piles
- Use thicker section
- Use high–grade steel
- To avoid maximum bending moment because it leads to corrosion.
- Cathodic protection for piles.
- In marine area used ASTM960 (SPLASH ZONE)
- Extension in concrete capping
Features of Steel Piles
To perform Excellently
Steel Pile has a small sectional area so that during driving the pile realizes less earth removal and low vibration.
Easy to customize
Steel piles are easily customizable in length, diameter, and thickness.
Easy to connectwith superstructure
In the steel pile at the top portion reinforcing bars are available, which connect the superstructure easily.
Easy to handle
Steel pile is easy to handle and transport because of its toughness and lightness ability.
To provide high bearing capacity
When the steel piles are driven into the soil, they provide a high bearing capacity.
For High bending strength
During earthquakes resists horizontal forces of the steel pipe piles with high stiffness and high bending strength.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Steel Piles
- Steel pile is capable to penetrate through stiff layers or boulders.
- Steel piles possess high bearing capacity compare to others
- These piles can handle rough handling.
- Soil volume displaced during driving of steel pile is compare to less.
- Steel piles provide strong and durable foundation for structure.
- Steel piles are highly susceptible to damage due to corrosion and electrolysis.
- Steel piles are costly compare to others unless the bearing stratum able to produce high pile capacity.
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What is the advantage of using steel piles in construction?
What is the type of steel pile for a deep foundation?
How the effect of corrosion occurs on the steel pile?
Piles are embedded in an impervious layer of the earth, at least 2 ft below the level of the ground, which will generally be free of corrosive effects because of insufficient oxygen in the atmosphere.