A total station is a modern and sophisticated instrument widely used in the field of surveying and construction. It combines the functionality of a theodolite, an electronic distance measuring device (EDM), and a data collector.
This advanced instrument offers precise measurements of angles, distances, and coordinates, making it an essential tool for accurate land surveying, engineering projects, and architectural layouts.
The uses of total stations are diverse and span multiple industries. They are extensively employed in construction projects for tasks such as topographic surveys, layout and alignment of structures, and monitoring deformation.
Additionally, total stations find applications in land surveying, geodetic control networks, archaeology, and infrastructure development.
What Is Total Station?
A Total Station is an electrical and digitally operated surveying instrument used for measurement and survey work. It is a gainful instrument for estimating points like even and vertical, and distance.
The Total station which is used in surveying for the measurement of field data consists of Electromagnetic Distance Measuring & Electronic Theodolite.
It empowers field advances with specialized features and apparatus that are trusty and trustworthy in requesting field circumstances.
Components of Total Station
The following are major Total Station Parts and Functions,
- Electronic transit theodolite
- Electronic distance meter (EDM)
- Electronic data collector & storage system
Keyboard: It is an essential accessory of the Total station, for providing the order to the microprocessor inbuilt into the Total station which contains different order keys. These keys incorporate switching keys, command keys, lighting keys, power keys, and so on.
Data Collector: The data collector collects and stores the information or perceptions. The entire activity of taking in-out and putting away information is constrained by the information gatherer.
Reflectors: The reflector is quietly the most fundamental function of the Total station. This is because of the Total station capacities or takes the estimations using the reflected beams. The reflector involves an exceptionally constructed reflecting crystal comprised of shapes or squares or reflecting glasses.
Software: In the majority of the Total station, the working system utilized is Windows CE.
In addition to the significant parts, the Total station likewise needs some extra function keys. Such include the control panel, keyboard, data collectors, memories, etc.
Advantages of Total Station
The following are major benefits of using the total station in surveying,
1. Ease of Use
This instrument is easy & instinctive to use. They can measure the distance and horizontal estimations at the same time, and they make it simple to compute northing-easting (coordinates).
Along these lines, the surveyor can occupy a greater amount of their time and energy on basic design and insightful issues.
2. Speedy Work
Total stations can collect the information very quickly, so the surveyor can get in and out of the field efficiently and quickly.
The total station offers a quick and convenient setup. By means of using a total station, the surveyor can work and take multiple surveys from one station point.
The total station is more accurate to a fraction of an arc second as well as to measure distances to hundredths of a foot over thousands of feet.
5. CAD interface
The total station can without much of a stretch download review information to a PC-helped drawing (CAD) program.
6. Avoids Manual Mistakes
Fieldwork is done extremely quickly and manual mistakes associated with fieldwork and recording are eliminated.
7. Fast Calculations
The calculation of coordinates is very fast & accurate. Even corrections for temperatures and pressures are automatically made.
8. Easy Computer Integration
Map-making, plotting contour, and cross-sections may get by using raw data from computers. Scales & contour intervals can be changed in no time.
The capability of a Total station
The microprocessor unit of a total station can compute the data collected,
- An average number of angles was measured.
- An average number of distances measured.
- Compute the distance between two points.
- Compute the horizontal distance between two points.
- Compute the object’s elevation.
How to Use Total Station In Surveying
The following are steps involved in the use of total station in surveying,
1. Setting Up Tripod
The tripod legs are fixed such that they are spaced equally. The Head of the tripod stand should likewise be level (roughly). The situation of the standing head should be fixed so that the top of the mount lies precisely over the station mark.
2. Mounting Total Station On The Tripod
After the Total station has been fixed to a particular point, the Total station is then mounted on the stand. With one hand, the instrument is supported over the stand while with the other hand, the centering screw should be fixed.
3. Focusing on The Survey Point
Focusing on the point to be surveyed is then done by the means of the optical plummet.
4. Leveling The Total Station
Then, the leveling foot screws are changed to such an extent that the review point lies halfway on the optical drive. The tripod legs are additionally changed so that the bubble lies in the center.
First of all, the air bubble is adjusted corresponding to the two-foot screws and brought to the middle by turning both screws in a similar course.
From that point forward, the air bubble is adjusted corresponding to the excess foot screw and brought to the middle by turning the screw.
This arrangement of the method is repeated various times until the air bubble stays in the central position.
5. Verifying The Leveling Electronically
Firstly, the instrument is turned on after pressing & holding the “ON” button given on the keypad. A blare is heard once the instrument is turned on.
After the screen is shown, the function is chosen. The foot level screws are then changed so the electronic bubble is likewise focused.
Again the instrument is pivoted at 90 degrees and the cycle is repeated.
6. Adjusting The Image & Focusing on The Cross-Hair
Horizontal and vertical cinches are then released and the telescope is pointed at any light foundation that is featureless. At that point, the cross-hair is changed until the picture turns out to be perfectly focused.
At that point, the telescope is centered on the objective, and the center ring is changed until the objective is particularly focused. The evacuation of parallax is then guaranteed by moving the head gradually aside.
7. Taking The Measurements
One time, the above steps have been completed, the total station can be used to take the measurements or observations.
Read More: Top 15 Civil Engineering Software
Types of Total Station
The following are various total station types used in surveying,
1. Mechanical Total Stations
Mechanical total stations are reliable and accurate, and they make surveying quick and easy. They don’t offer remote control operation & automated features, however, the operation typically requires two people.
2. Robotic Total Stations
These Total stations take into account more innovative accommodation. They give broadened controller capacities and need just a single operator, and they take into consideration expanded security in the testing landscape due to their novel capacity to work a good way off.
3. Prism Total Stations
Both the mechanical & robotic total stations come under prism models. These total stations are more traditional than the above two models, and they are still more commonly used. This Total station uses prisms to reflect infrared waves and then determines angles & distance by measuring the prism’s location.
Less Total Stations: Both mechanical and robotic total stations come under reflector-less versions as well. These total stations of the newer model are useful for taking measurements in challenging circumstances. This type of total station can work in difficult terrain or in places where you can’t reach on foot, and they don’t require the use of a prism.
Uses of Total Station in Surveying
Followings are major total station uses in the field of surveying,
1. Distance Measuring
One of the main employments of the Total station is distance measuring. It is very well utilized for distance estimation by utilizing a regulated transporter infrared signal. This signal can ascertain the distance after it is reflected back by the object under survey.
Such infrared transporter signal is brought out by the Total station utilizing a strong state producer and the translation of the reflected signal is completed by utilizing the processing chip inbuilt into the Total station itself.
2. Angle Measurement
The most significant utilization of the Total station is the measurements of the angle between two points. These precise estimations are finished by utilizing the electrical and optical filtering arrangement of the telescope.
This framework is furnished with turning glass that contains the scanner lenses. In the digital Total stations, readings are straightforwardly recorded and put away in the principal memory of the Total station. The recorded information saved in memory can be moved to a computer for final mapping.
3. Co-ordinate Determinations
It is additionally a significant use of the Total Station to decide the area of the necessary field. For example, the Total station can be utilized to compute the X, Y, and Z coordinates of any point.
Before the initiation of any mining work, a mining survey work must be finished. The Total station is a significant instrument utilized for this reason.
5. Civil Engineering Construction Works
Almost all types of civil engineering construction and related work can be done using the total station.
It can be used for making maps and plans, demarcating property lines, land surveying, determining the alignment of roads, bridges, tunnels, etc.
Total Station Price
The total station price ranges from 1 lakh to 10 lacks depending upon features included in it.
Precautions to be Taken While Using Total Station
The following precautions must be taken while using a total station on the field,
- The total station must be handled properly and held by both hands.
- The tripod must be held on a stable surface as far as possible and practicable.
- The charged battery pack must be kept along with the battery discharged.
- The tripod with the total station mounted on it must not be carried from one station to another station.
- When the tribrach has been removed from the total station, it should be handled carefully.
In conclusion, the total station is a remarkable tool which is revolutionized surveying and measuring practice, with its integration of EDM instrument, angle measurements and data processing capabilities, the total station offers enhanced accuracy, efficiency and productivity in various industries.
Its additionally, total station’s advanced features, such as reflector less measurement and robotic functionality, have further increased its versatility and usability, from construction and engineering projects to land surveying and mapping applications and the total station has become an indispensable instrument for professionals worldwide, with ongoing advancements and technological innovation, the total station continues to evolve, further empowering surveyors and engineers in their quest for accurate and reliable measurements.
What are pavement markings?
Pavement markings are lines, symbols, and patterns painted or applied on road surfaces to provide information, guidance, and regulate traffic flow.
What do solid white lines on the road mean?
Solid white lines typically indicate no passing zones. Crossing a solid white line is generally prohibited, and drivers should not change lanes or overtake other vehicles.
What do dashed yellow lines on the road mean?
Dashed yellow lines indicate that passing is allowed when safe and provide separation between lanes of traffic flowing in opposite directions.
What does a crosswalk marking signify?
A crosswalk marking indicates designated areas for pedestrians to cross the road safely. Drivers should yield to pedestrians within crosswalks.
You May Also Like
- What Is Surveying? 23 Different Types of Surveying Equipment
- Top 15 Civil Engineering Software
- 50 + Civil Engineering Interview Questions & Answers
- Building Construction Process from Start to Finish
- What Is Chain Surveying | Principles Of Chain Surveying | Chaining In Surveying
- Theodolite | Transit Theodolite | Types of Theodolite | Theodolite Parts | Uses Of Theodolite