What Is Anti Termite Treatment?
Anti termite treatment is a chemical procedure carried out for soil, masonry, wood, and electrical fixtures to provide the building with a chemical barrier against the subterranean termites before and after construction.
Necessity of Anti-Treatment
- Termite control in buildings is very important as the damage likely to be caused by the termites is huge.
- Termite is also known to damage non–cellulosic substance in their search for food.
- Neoprene, plastic, Rubber, leather as well as lead coating used for covering of underground cables are damaged by termites.
Location of Termite
- Termite need foods cellulose, Moisture and warmth to survive.
- wood building material in and around home from the basement to the crawl space to the attic-can provide.
- The ideal food sources for these wood destroying insects.
- Common construction condition around homes, including area of sufficient grading that allow puddles to form near the foundation and air conditioning units.
- That create run-off moisture, can offer sufficient moisture for termite colony.
Code used for Anti Termite Treatment
- IS 6313 – Code for anti-termite measure in buildings.
- IS 6313 Part 1 – Constructional Measure
- IS 6313 Part 2 – Pre-Constructionalanti-termite measure in building
- IS 6313 Part 3 – Treatment for existing structure or building.
Types of Termites
- Conehead Termites
- Damp wood Termites
- Dry wood Termites
- Formosan Termites
- Subterranean Termites
Damp wood Termite
Dry Wood Termites
Types of Treatment
- Pre-Construction Stage
- Post-Construction Stage / Existing Building or Structure
- Wood Work
Pre-Construction Anti Termite Treatment
- Subterranean termites damage the household articles like furniture, plywood, clothing, stationery, etc. by feeding organic material which have cellulose base.
- The termites make the house in soil and searching for wood by burrow through the ground and making tunnels of mud
- Termites travel through the brick walls, masonry work, and electric conduits of the building to the source of food and cause damage to the structure.
Subterranean termites, only a single colony may create more population and they damaged huge parts of the property.
Common Indian species
- Odontotomies spp (75-80%)
- Reticulitermes spp.
- Zootermopsis spp.
- Drywood termites
- Cryptotermes spp.
- Coptotermes spp.
- Heterotermes spp.
- Incisitermes spp.
- Marginitermes spp.
What Is the Solution to the problem?
- Treating the soil beneath the building and around foundations when it is still in the process of construction is a good way to prevent termite infestation.
- Pre–construction anti termite treatment is attracting attention throughout the world.
- The soil is immediately contact with the foundation and superstructure of a building and they treated with an insecticide which kills termites
- Thus forming a toxic barrier which is lethal to termite entry.
- Pre–construction anti termite treatment the name suggested to it is done in the early stages of construction.
The following procedure of pre-construction anti termite treatment
- Site preparation
- Soil treatment
- Structure barrier
1. Site Preparation
- Remove all roots, small plants and stumps from the worksite.
- Remove all the concrete debris from worksite if left anywhere timber cutoffs, leveling pegs, and other types of building debris.
- In case the soil is to be treated as a porous, then firstly moistening process will be required to fill the capillary spaces in soil.
- To prevent the loss of chemical emulsion through excessive preclusion of the soil.
- In the case of water logging in foundation the water shall be pumped out before inject the chemical emulsion.
- A chemical emulsion should be applied only, when the soil is absorbent.
- On other hand texture of soil is clayey and heavy in that case penetration is to be gradually and on sloping sites.
- Where runoff is only one solution for that purpose soil surface should be provide a depth of 75mm.
- Chemical Used as anti-termite agents.
- Chlorpyriphos 20% Bearing ISI Certification.
- Dilute 1 part of Chlorpyriphos 20% with 90% of water.
2. Providing Structure Barrier
1. Termite Proof Barrier at DPC Level
- When no DPC is provided the mortar used for 2 consecutive layers of masonry just below the plinth filing.
- It shall be made with emulsion as specified above.
- These processes create termite proof barrier in plinth wall.
- To prevent subterranean termites from entering through voids in the foundation into the super structure.
- As per Bureau of Indian standards, major and minor steps are given below for anti termite treatment.
- Bottom surface and Sides of Trenches of Foundation
- Backfill in Immediate Contact with Foundation.
- Junction of floors and walls.
- Top Surface of Plinth Filling
- External Perimeter of Building.
2. Sites and Bottom of the Trenches of Foundation
- The first stage that is Pre– Anti termite treatment in foundation is carried out after excavation of the pit was complete.
- The bottom surface and the sides (up to a height of about 1 m) should be treated with the emulsion of chemical.
- chemicals are listed above at recommended concentrations.
- Masonry foundation and Basement should be treated with the emulsion of chemical at 5 liter per sq. meter of the total soil surface area.
3. Backfill Treatment
- After the treatment of masonry foundation, when the retaining wall of the basements come up, in backfilling is immediately contact with the foundation structure or substructure.
- It should be treated at the rate of 7.5 liter per sq. meter of the soilsurface area.
4. Wall floor Junction Treatment
- It is important step of the anti termite treatment, to establish the vertical emulsion of chemical barrier on the inner wall surface from the ground level up to the level of the filled earth surface.
- To achieve this treatment, a making small channel is 3 cm x 3 cm at all of the floor junction , wall junction and holes.
- Channel is made-up to the ground level at 15 cm apart and treating it with the anti-termite chemical emulsion.
5. Plinth Filling Treatment
- As per the Bureau of Indian standards, the top surface of the consolidated earth within the plinth walls.
- It shall be treated with chemical emulsion at rate of 5 liters. per sq. meter of the surface before the stone, debrish bed is laid.
6. External Perimeter Treatment
- After the completion of the building, the soil along the external perimeter of the building.
- It should be tapped at intervals of 15 cm and to a depth of 30 cm.
- By the forward and backward movement of tamping steel rod break up the soil and poured chemical emulsion along the wall.
- At the rate of 7.5 liters per sq. meter of the vertical surface area of the building.
- This process is forms a chemical barrier for termites in to the soil.
- All these stages are mentioned above are very essential for Prevention of Termites in New Construction work.
- To make the building completely termite proof. Another These miscellaneous stages are given below.
Soil Treatment for Pre–Construction Termite Treatment
1. Expansion Joints
- One of the most critical points in the structure is the lowermost floor level, where termites entered insides and damage the whole structure.
- In that case, Expansion joints are used. To provide protection against termites.
- The previous soil under expansion joints should be thoroughly used at 2 liters per linear meter.
- This is an important structural member of the Pre slab anti termite treatment.
2. Plumbing or Sanitary Outlet and Inlet Points For Treatment
- The inlet and outlet points of fresh and wastewater pipes are one of the most vulnerable areas.
- Special care should be needed around these areas as due to the constant moisture source these areas always remain to protect from termites.
- These areas should be making anti-termite proof with the help of spraying chemical emulsion and the method of injecting conduit site.
- The electric conduits can provide to be easy access for the termite invasion.
- The termites are used electric conduits or electric wires as pathways to move from one part of the building to other parts of the building and likewise moving from one floor to another floor.
- Therefore the treatment of electric conduits and channels remains an integral part of pretreatment for termites.
For prevention of termites follows these step,
- Firstly excavated channels, before placing the wiring spraying chemical emulsion.
- Then after electric conduits are safe.
3. Spraying Equipment
- A pressure pump shall be used to carry out the spraying operation.
- To facilitate proper penetration of chemicals into the earth.
Precaution During Monsoon
- No spraying shall be carried out when it rains preparation shall be repeated at plinth area.
- If it rains immediately after a spraying operation and before the emulsion soak into the soil
Post-Construction Anti Termite Treatment
Following equipment and tools are used for anti termite treatment
- Sharp knife
- Pressure Gun
- Power drills of different Diameter and sizes
- Safety equipment
- Flash light
- Before undertaking any type of treatment into the structure a thorough inspection should be required to determine the entry point of the termites.
Extermination of Termites in Building
- After the inspection easy to find the location of termites. The extermination inside the building.
- It shall be carried out sequentially, looking at the termites in their hideouts.
- Such as switchboard, inside electrical wiring points, ceilings behind wooden panellings, conduits, and similar locations.
The following preventive measures should be taken to be safe from termite attack
The main objective of soil treatment is to establish the chemical emulsion barrier between the termites in the soil and the building to be protected.
Basically, it consists of treating the soil adjacent to or under the building with a chemical emulsion, which kills or repels termites.
Water emulsions are one type of chemicals given above that shall be used in soil treatment and applied precisely at the prescribed rate.
Treatment along the outside of the foundation:
The soil in contact with the external wall of the structure/ building shall be treated with chemicals at the rate of 7.5 liters/m2 of the vertical surface of the sub-structure to a depth of 300 mm.
When adopting this treatment a shallow channel shall be excavated along and close to the wall.
Then after chemical emulsion shall be poured at a rate of 1.75 liters per running meter of the channel.
The next step is tamping, with the help of a tapping rod having 12 mm diameter at 150 mm depth apart shall be done in the channel.
If necessary for uniform spraying of the chemical to 300 mm depth from the ground level.
If there is a concrete or masonry unit around the building, approximately 12 mm diameter holes shall be drilled as close as possible to the plinth wall at 300 mm.
The chemical emulsion is pumped into the holes to soak the soil below at a rate of 2.25 liter per linear meter.
Treatment of Soil Under Floor
The points where the termites are entering through the floor following locations
- At the junction of the floors and walls as a result of shrinkage or the concrete
- At construction joints in a concrete floor, cast in sections; and Expansion joints in the floor.
- The floor surface owing to construction defects;
- A Chemical treatment should be provided within the plinth area of the ground floor of the structure.Wherever such type cracks are noticed, for protection drilling the vertical 12 mm holes at the junction of floor and walls.
- The constructional and expansion joints mentioned above at 300 mm interval to reach the soil below.
- Chemical emulsion shall be poured into these holes using a manually operated pressure pump until to a maximum of one liter per hole.
- The holes shall be sealed.
- In general, the idea is to treat the soil below the floor at the locations of cracks with emulsion .
- so that termites in the soil are sealed the path through such cracks and opening in the floor.
Treatment to voids in masonry
- Termites are entered into the masonry foundation by voids and spreading all members of building at ground level and super structure.
- The movement of the termites through the building may be arrested by drilling holes into the masonry walls at plinth level and spraying chemical into the holes to soak the masonry.
- The holes shall be drilled at a downward angle of about 45 degree preferably from both sides of the plinth wall.
- At approximately 300 mm intervals. The spraying chemical emulsion by hand operated pressure pump.
- The depth of drilled holes shall be depend several factors like decreased or increased the size of wall, for normal size brick wall that is 230 mm thick wall, at that case depth of drilled holes shall be 150mm.
- This process shall also be extended up to internal walls having foundations in the soil .
- Holes are drilled at critical points, such as wall corners and where door and window frames are putting in the masonry or floor at ground.
- Chemical Emulsion shall be spraying through the holes till to a maximum of one liter per hole.
- The treated holes shall be completely sealed.
Treatment at Points of Contact of Wood Work
- All existing woodwork in the building which is in contact with the walls or floors and which is infested by termites.
- They shall be treated by spraying at the points of contacts with the adjoining masonry with the chemical of concentration.
- The given above by drilling 6 mm holes at a downward angle of about 45 degree .
- At the junction of woodwork and masonry and spraying chemical into these holes.
Treatment of Wood Work
For the purpose of treatment, woodwork may be classified as below
- Which is damaged by termites beyond repair and need replacements
- Which is damaged slightly by termites and does not need replacement.
- The woodwork, which has already been damaged beyond repairs by termites, shall be replaced.
- The new timber should be used before dipped at least twice with chemicals in kerosene and mineral oil .
- All damaged woodwork that does not need to replacement shall be treated as follow
- Infested woodwork in purlins, frame, jointsetc, in contact with the walls or the floors.
- They shall be provided with protection purpose by drilling holes of about 3 mm diameter with a downward slant to the core of the woodwork
- These holes should be have at least 150 mm center to center and should cover the entire framework.
- Any chemicals are given above shall be liberally inject into these holes.
- If the wood is not protected by the varnishing and painting of two coats of the chemical shall be given on all the surfaces are adjoining the masonry.
Treatment of Electrical Fixtures
- If infestation in electrical fixture such as switch boxes , panel, wiring in the wall is noticed, covers of the switch boxes shall be removed and inside of such boxes .
- These shall be treated liberally with 5% Malathion dusting powder or Chlorpyrifos Dust.
- After dusting the powder the switch boards are re fixed.
- All works should be followed safety instruction , municipality rules , regulations and project safety plan.
- Basic Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) shall be worn by all laborer or staff workers.
- All operatives shall be instructed before entering the site.
Advantages of Anti Termite Treatment
- Anti termites treatment may lasts for several years.
- Termites treatment provides immediately protection for any types structures from the termites, pests and rodents.
- Liquid termiticides are relatively inexpensive as compared to other types of termite control.
- This treatment is easy.
- For treatment not required skill labor.
- It eliminates the problem of forming gaps in the protection of emulsion chemical barrier.
Disadvantages of Anti Termite Treatment
- Drilling into the areas that show routh of termite entry. it is the biggest disadvantage which can reduce the strength of the structure or member.
- Anti–Termite treatment can close to wetlands or waterways.
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