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**What Is Fineness Modulus of Sand?**

The **Fineness Modulus of Sand** is an index number that indicates the mean size of the **sand particles**. It is calculated by performing the** sieve analysis test** with standard IS sieves. The **fineness modulus of sand ranges from 2.2 to 3.2.**

To find the **fineness modulus of fine aggregate **required** IS sieve** are **sizes of 4.75mm. 2.36mm, 1.18mm.0.6mm, 0.3mm, and 0.15mm.**

**Read More:** **Sand Moisture Content Test â€“ Procedure and Result**

**Fineness Modulus of Sand Test**

**IS Code for Fineness Modulus** of fine aggregate : **IS : 383 -1970**

**Apparatus:**

- Sieves as per IS standards
- Mechanical sieve shaker(optional)
- Dry oven
- Digital weight scale

**Sample Preparation**

Sample preparation for fineness modulus of sand is given as under

Take a** sample of sand** in a pan and placed it in the oven at a t**emperature of approximate 100-110Â°C.**

**After drying,** take the sample out from oven and note down its weight using digital weighing scale.

**Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate**

Following is the test procedure for fineness modulus of sand test,

1) Take the sieves and arrange them in **descending order with the largest sieve on top.**

2) If a mechanical shaker is using for shaking, then put the sieve set in position on the **mechanical shaker** and pour the sample in the top sieve & then close it with the sieve plate.

3) Then switch on the machine and **shaking of sieves** should be done at least for** 5 minutes.**

4) If the shaking is done manually (by the hands) then pour the sample in a top sieve and close it then hold the top two sieves and shake it **inwards and outwards, vertically and horizontally.**

5) After some time **shake 3 and 4** and finally last sieves simultaneously.

6) After sieving, **record the sample weights retained on each sieve**. Then find the cumulative weight retained.

7) Finally, determine the **cumulative percentage retained on each sieve.**

8) Add the all **cumulative percentage valu**es and **divide with 100** then we will get the value of fineness modulus.

**Calculation of F.M. of Sand**

Let us assume the dry weight of sample = 1000gm

After sieve analysis, the values that appeared are tabulated below.

Sieve size | Weight retained(g) | Cumulative weight retained (g) | Cumulative percentage weight retained(%) |

4.75mm | 0 | 0 | 0 |

2.36mm | 100 | 100 | 10 |

1.18mm | 250 | 350 | 35 |

0.6mm | 350 | 700 | 70 |

0.3mm | 200 | 900 | 90 |

0.15mm | 100 | 1000 | 100 |

Total | 275 |

**Hence, Fineness modulus of Sand = (Cumulative % retained) / 100**

= (275 / 100)

**= 2.75**

**Range of Fineness of Modulus**

Following table indicate sand fineness modulus value ranges from 2.6 to 3.2.

Types of Sand | Fineness Modulus (F. M) Value |

Fine Sand | 2.6 – 2.6 |

Medium Sand | 2.6 -2.9 |

Coarse Sand | 2.9 -3.2 |

**Fineness modulus with respect to various zones of sand according to IS 383-1970 are given in table below.**

Sieve size | Zone1 | Zone2 | Zone3 | Zone4 |

10mm | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 |

4.75mm | 90-100 | 90-100 | 90-100 | 95-100 |

2.36mm | 60-95 | 75-100 | 85-100 | 95-100 |

1.18mm | 30-70 | 55-90 | 75-100 | 90-100 |

0.6mm | 15-34 | 35-59 | 60-79 | 80-100 |

0.3mm | 5-20 | 8-30 | 12-40 | 15-50 |

0.15mm | 0-10 | 0-10 | 0-10 | 0-15 |

Fineness Modulus | 4.0-2.71 | 3.37-2.1 | 2.78-1.71 | 2.25-1.35 |

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