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**What Is Fineness Modulus of Sand?**

The **Fineness Modulus of Sand** is an index number that indicates the mean size of the **sand particles**. It is calculated by performing the** sieve analysis test** with standard IS sieves. The **fineness modulus of sand ranges from 2.2 to 3.2.**

To find the **fineness modulus of fine aggregate **required** IS sieve** are **sizes of 4.75mm. 2.36mm, 1.18mm.0.6mm, 0.3mm, and 0.15mm.**

**Read More:** **Sand Moisture Content Test – Procedure and Result**

**Fineness Modulus of Sand Test**

**IS Code for Fineness Modulus** of fine aggregate : **IS : 383 -1970**

**Apparatus:**

- Sieves as per IS standards
- Mechanical sieve shaker(optional)
- Dry oven
- Digital weight scale

**Sample Preparation**

Sample preparation for fineness modulus of sand is given as under

Take a** sample of sand** in a pan and placed it in the oven at a t**emperature of approximate 100-110°C.**

**After drying,** take the sample out from oven and note down its weight using digital weighing scale.

**Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate**

Following is the test procedure for fineness modulus of sand test,

1) Take the sieves and arrange them in **descending order with the largest sieve on top.**

2) If a mechanical shaker is using for shaking, then put the sieve set in position on the **mechanical shaker** and pour the sample in the top sieve & then close it with the sieve plate.

3) Then switch on the machine and **shaking of sieves** should be done at least for** 5 minutes.**

4) If the shaking is done manually (by the hands) then pour the sample in a top sieve and close it then hold the top two sieves and shake it **inwards and outwards, vertically and horizontally.**

5) After some time **shake 3 and 4** and finally last sieves simultaneously.

6) After sieving, **record the sample weights retained on each sieve**. Then find the cumulative weight retained.

7) Finally, determine the **cumulative percentage retained on each sieve.**

8) Add the all **cumulative percentage valu**es and **divide with 100** then we will get the value of fineness modulus.

**Calculation of F.M. of Sand**

Let us assume the dry weight of sample = 1000gm

After sieve analysis, the values that appeared are tabulated below.

Sieve size | Weight retained(g) | Cumulative weight retained (g) | Cumulative percentage weight retained(%) |

4.75mm | 0 | 0 | 0 |

2.36mm | 100 | 100 | 10 |

1.18mm | 250 | 350 | 35 |

0.6mm | 350 | 700 | 70 |

0.3mm | 200 | 900 | 90 |

0.15mm | 100 | 1000 | 100 |

Total | 275 |

**Hence, Fineness modulus of Sand = (Cumulative % retained) / 100**

= (275 / 100)

**= 2.75**

**Range of Fineness of Modulus**

Following table indicate sand fineness modulus value ranges from 2.6 to 3.2.

Types of Sand | Fineness Modulus (F. M) Value |

Fine Sand | 2.6 – 2.6 |

Medium Sand | 2.6 -2.9 |

Coarse Sand | 2.9 -3.2 |

**Fineness modulus with respect to various zones of sand according to IS 383-1970 are given in table below.**

Sieve size | Zone1 | Zone2 | Zone3 | Zone4 |

10mm | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 |

4.75mm | 90-100 | 90-100 | 90-100 | 95-100 |

2.36mm | 60-95 | 75-100 | 85-100 | 95-100 |

1.18mm | 30-70 | 55-90 | 75-100 | 90-100 |

0.6mm | 15-34 | 35-59 | 60-79 | 80-100 |

0.3mm | 5-20 | 8-30 | 12-40 | 15-50 |

0.15mm | 0-10 | 0-10 | 0-10 | 0-15 |

Fineness Modulus | 4.0-2.71 | 3.37-2.1 | 2.78-1.71 | 2.25-1.35 |

**Free Download Sieve Analysis Excel Sheet:**

**Watch Video: Fineness Modulus of Sand**

## FAQs

**How do you calculate fineness modulus of sand?**

**CALCULATE FINENESS MODULUS OF SAND****The Fineness Modulus **is an index number that indicates the mean size of the sand particle. It is calculated by the** sieve analysis test **with standard IS sieves. The **fineness modulus of sand ranges from 2.2 to 3.2.** The formula for its calculation is,**Fineness modulus of Sand = (Cumulative % retained) / 100**

**What is the range of fineness modulus?**

**Range Of Fineness Modulus**

Fineness Modulus of different sands are listed below,

**Types of Sand** **Fineness Modulus (F. M) Value**

Fine Sand 2.6 – 2.6

Medium Sand 2.6 -2.9

Coarse Sand 2.9 -3.2

**What is fineness modulus used for?**

**Use of Fineness Modulus**

The fineness modulus specifies the average size of the sand and aggregate particles for the mixing of concrete. However, the size will be beneficial in understanding how easily the concrete pours and spreads, along with its strength and durability once cured.

**Which zone sand is the finest sand?**

**ZONE-IV**Sands belonging to

**Zone-IV**are the finest of a type. And on the contrary to that Zone-I has Coarse Sand. As a result, Zone-IV has the lowest Fineness Modulus Value.

**What is the FM of sand?**

The **Fineness Modulus of Sand** is an index number that indicates the mean size of the **sand particles**. It is calculated by performing the** sieve analysis test** with standard IS sieves. The **fineness modulus of sand ranges from 2.2 to 3.2.**

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