There are different types of Building Foundation Materials used to the foundation of the house. House foundation materials have prime importance as the whole structure load has to bear by it and transfer to soil safely. In this article, we will discuss different types of materials used in foundation used for house construction or materials needed for the foundation.
What is Foundation?
A building foundation is defined as the lowest part of any structure. Its main function is to support load coming from the upper part and transfer it to the soil beneath it.
Without a foundation, we can’t imagine any structure nowadays. Foundation is the first step in the construction of any structure.
The Function of Foundation
Followings are the main function of the foundation
- Provide overall lateral stability for the structure
- Foundation serves the function of providing a level surface for the construction of substructure
- Load Distribution is carried out evenly
- The load intensity is reduced to be within the safe bearing capacity of the soil
- The soil movement effect is resisted and prevented
- Scouring and the undermining issues are solved by the construction of the foundation.
Types of Building Foundation
The following are the types of foundation used in building construction.
i) Individual footing or isolated footing
ii) Combined footing
iii) Strip foundation
2. Deep Foundation
ii) Drilled Shafts or caissons
3. Wood Foundation
4. Stone Foundation
5. Clay Foundation
Building Foundation Materials Used In Construction
Common Materials Used in Foundation Construction
- Concrete Block
- Fly Ash
Let’s discuss each House foundation materials list,
Wood as a foundation material may look unsuitable, but it is used for house foundation in many cases, where concrete foundation becomes an expensive option.
When wood used as the foundation is pressure-treated and coated with multiple chemicals to prevent rotting and to keep wood-eating pests such as termites away.
Stones as building foundation material proved to be strong, durable and economical to use if they are available near the building site. Stone mostly used for curtain walls and low piers and, where they may be laid up without mortar if the economy is a major factor, although it is difficult to make them watertight, even if laid with mortar.
To protect the house from termite attack the stone foundations are most suitable because it provides an impermeable barrier to enter the house.
Concrete is the best material for foundation among all other materials used for foundation because it is hard, durable, and strong in compression. Concrete does not affect by moisture and can be made nearly watertight for basement walls. It can easily casted in any shape required for each foundation. These materials used in concrete foundations work.
For example, the curtain wall can be made with concrete and it requires a narrow trench with very little formwork required. Its single major disadvantage is the relatively high cost of the cement required to make the concrete.
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4. Concrete Blocks
Block made of concrete can be used to construct attractive and durable foundation walls. Concrete block eliminates the need for unnecessary formwork and, because of their large size, concrete blocks will lay up faster than bricks. Its major disadvantage is that concrete block walls are difficult to make watertight than a concrete wall and do not resist lateral forces as well as a poured-concrete wall.
Steel is the most popular reinforcing material used by foundation contractors in the United States because of its strength and durability. It is utilized in the form of steel rods of varying thicknesses. These steels can be arranged either parallel or perpendicular to each other. Generally, the steel used as reinforcements is usually treated to be stainless and rust-free.
Aggregate is not only one material, it includes gravel, crushed stone, sand, slag, and recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. This material may natural, manufactured or recycled.
Aggregates cover 60 – 80 % volume of concrete mix. Its main function is to provide compressive strength and bulk to concrete. Amount of aggregates are used in any concrete are selected for their durability, strength, workability, and ability to receive finishes.
For making strong and durable concrete, and aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete.
7. Fly Ash
The fly ash primly used as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in the production of portland cement concrete. Also, it used in the concrete making when used in conjunction with portland cement, contributes to the properties of the hardened concrete through hydraulic or pozzolanic activity, or both.
The Brick masonry foundation is mainly used for its cost-effectiveness and its unattractive appearance would not be visible.
The Foundation made from brick should support the weight of the structure and lateral loads imposed by soil adjacent to foundations. Also, it should be sufficiently durable to withstand aggressions from soil and groundwater.
Brick foundation can be constructed as masonry units only (plain masonry foundation) or reinforced with steel bars to increase the ultimate load-carrying capacity.
Sand is one of the essential ingredients of concrete. The main function of sand in concrete is to work as filler material. Sand fills the extra pore space left between aggregates. It plays a major part in the concrete’s composition. The amount of sand in concrete determines the mixture’s strength and texture. In fact, if we remove sand from concrete it will become a completely different material than difficult to pour and low strength.
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