Specific Gravity of cement Test

Specific Gravity of Cement | Specific Gravity Test on Cement

What Is Specific Gravity of Cement?

The specific gravity of cement is defined as the mass of cement of specified volume to the mass of water of the same volume of cement. It can also be defined as the density of cement to the density of water for the same volume.

In both, the definitions volume of cement must be the same. If the volume does not remain the same then the specific gravity value may be accurate. Because the mass and density of cement and water are liable to change with respect to its volume.

Specific gravity is the comparison of the mass or density of any substance with the mass or density of the standard substance. Generally, water is considered the standard substance.

The best method to determine the specific gravity cement is by using a liquid such as water-free kerosene, which does not react with cement.

For conducting this test, a standard Le Chatelier specific gravity flask or specific gravity bottle may be employed. The Le Chatelier specific gravity flask is also utilized to determine the specific gravity of dust, sand, and other fine materials.

This specific gravity of cement is an essential parameter in concrete mix design material quantity calculations. This specific gravity of portland cement is about 3.15 and can be measured using to ASTM C188.

Read More: Initial And Final Setting Time Of Cement Test, Procedure & Result


Different Test of Cement

The following tests are conducted on cement,

  1. Fineness Test of Cement
  2. Consistency Test of Cement
  3. Setting Time Test of Cement
  4. Soundness Test of Cement
  5. The Heat of Hydration Test
  6. Specific Gravity Test of Cement
  7. Tensile Strength Test
  8. Chemical Composition Test

Use of Specific Gravity of Cement

The specific gravity value of any substance gives the idea about how heavy or light is the substance compared to the standard substance. From the value, we can judge it will float or sink in another substance.

All-natural material and substance have their own specific gravity value. It generally ranges from 1 to 100. Water has a specific gravity of around 1and If the specific gravity of other material is greater than 1, then it sinks in water.

If the specific gravity of the material less than 1 it floats in water. Therefore, the specific gravity of any material is an important property to know. So that we can use it in a proper way.

Generally, the specific gravity of cement ranges from 3.1 to 3.16 g/cc. From this we can say that the specific gravity of cement is more than the specific gravity of water that is 1. It means cement will sink in water if we put on the water. Also, we can say that cement is heavier than water.

Cement particle has pore in it and they can absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Considering this behavior of cement particle the specific gravity can either increase or decrease.

While we are calculating cement for mix design we consider the specific gravity of cement as standard 3.14. So, any change in cement-specific gravity will affect the mix design. Hence, it is essential to test the specific gravity of the cement procured before the mixing process.

This is the main reason behind we reject the old stored cement. Old cement has more liable to store external moisture which results in increased specific gravity of cement.


Specific Gravity Test of Cement

IS code for Specific gravity test is IS 2720- Part 3


Apparatus

The following apparatus used in specific gravity test of cement,

Specific Gravity Test of Cement Apparatus - Procedure, Result
Specific Gravity of Cement Apparatus
  1. Le Chaterlier”s flask
  2. Weighing balance
  3. Kerosene (free from water).

Specific Gravity of Cement Procedure

Specific Gravity Test of Cement Procedure
Specific Gravit
0y of Cement
  1. Clean the Lechatlier flask before use. I t should be free from moisture.
  2. Now, Take weight of empty flask as W1.
  3. Take around 50 gm of cement and fill in flask.
  4. Fix stopper on flask and weight flask with cement as W2.
  5. Now fill kerosene in flask up to the neck of bottle.
  6. Thoroughly mix cement and kerosene in flask taking care no air bubble left in it. Record this weight as W3.
  7. Empty flask and clean it. Now fill kerosene in it up to neck of bottle and  record the weight as W4.

Observations and Calculations

Specific Gravity of Cement is calculated by using following formula,

= (W2 – W1) / ((W2 – W1) – (W3 – W4) X 0.79)

Where,

W1 = Weight of Empty Flask.

W2 = Weight of Flask + Cement.

W3 = Weight of Flask + Cement + Kerosene.

W4 = Weight of Flask + Kerosene.

Here, the specific gravity of kerosene is 0.79g/cc

Note:

  • Conduct test at least 3 times for accurate result.
  • Clean flask before using it again.

Result:

The specific gravity of a sample of cement = 3.15


Why Kerosene used for Specific Gravity Test of Cement

  1. If we use water instead of kerosene, water will mix with cement and make paste. As we know that cement mixed with water, cement start it heat of hydration process. So, water can’t be used for cement specific gravity test.
  2. Kerosene is very well known polar liquid so it will not react with cement while doing the test. The specific gravity of kerosene is 0.79g/cc.

FAQs:

Q.1 What is specific gravity of cement?

Specific gravity of cement is defined as the mass of cement of specified volume to the mass of water of the same volume of cement.

Q.2 How do you calculate the specific gravity of cement?

1) Clean the Lechatlier flask before use. I t should be free from moisture.
2) Now, Take weight of empty flask as W1.
3) Take around 50 gm of cement and fill in flask.
4) Fix stopper on flask and weight flask with cement as W2.
5) Now fill kerosene in flask up to the neck of bottle.
6) Thoroughly mix cement and kerosene in flask taking care no air bubble left in it. Record this weight as W3.
7) Empty flask and clean it. Now fill kerosene in it up to neck of bottle and  record the weight as W4.

Q.3 Why specific gravity test is done?

The specific gravity value of any substance gives the idea about how heavy or light is the substance compared to the standard substance. From the value, we can judge it will float or sink in another substance.

Q.4 What is Standard Specific Gravity of Cement?

Generally, the specific gravity of cement ranges from 3.1 to 3.16 g/cc.

Q.5 What is the use of specific gravity of cement?

Cement particle has pore in it and they can absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Considering this behavior of cement particle the specific gravity can either increase or decrease. While we are calculating cement for mix design we consider the specific gravity of cement as standard 3.14. So, any change in cement specific gravity will affect the mix design. Hence, it is essential to test the specific gravity of the cement procured before the mixing process.

Q.6 What is Specific Gravity of Kerosine?

The specific gravity of kerosene is 0.79g/cc.

Specific Gravity of Cement

Specific gravity defined as the mass of cement of specified volume to the mass of water of the same volume of cement. The specific gravity of cement ranging from 3.1 to 3.16 g/cc

sp.gravity of cement

3.15 g/cc
Limit: Specific gravity of cement = 3.15 g/cc.

Specific Gravity of OPC

The OPC cement specific gravity is 3.1 to 3.16 g/cc that means cement is heavier than the water of the same volume and it sinks in water.

Specific Gravity of Cement IS Code

IS code for Specific gravity test of cement is IS 2720- Part 3

Specific Gravity of PPC Cement

3.08 gr/cm3
As per study on specific gravity of PPC is found to be 3.06 to 3.08 gr/cm3

Specific Gravity of Concrete

The specific gravity of cement is defined as the mass of cement of specified volume to the mass of water of the same volume of cement. It can also be defined as the density of cement to the density of water for the same volume. The specific gravity of cement ranging from 3.1 to 3.16 g/cc


Watch Video: Specific Gravity Test of Cement


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