Test on Cement

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods9 min read

Cement Test

Cement Tests are performed to know the strength and characteristic properties of cement. Various Test on cement is known nowadays to check the quality of cement.

To know the properties of cement such as specific gravity, strength, fineness, consistency, etc. various Cement Testing Methods are used. Testing of materials is essential before use in construction work.

Test on Cement

The following test on cement in the laboratory,

  1. Fineness Test of Cement
  2. Consistency Test of Cement
  3. Setting Time Test of Cement
  4. Soundness Test of Cement
  5. Heat of Hydration Test
  6. Specific Gravity Test of Cement
  7. Tensile Strength Test
  8. Chemical Composition Test

1. Fineness on Cement

The fineness of cement is a measure of cement particle size and is denoted as terms of the specific surface area of cement. The Test is done by sieving cement sample through standard IS sieve. 

The weight cement particle whose size greater than 90 microns is determined and the percentage of the retained particle are calculated. This is known as the Fineness of cement.

Apparatus

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Fineness Test Apparatus
  • 90µm IS Sieve
  • Weight Balance having a capacity of 10 mg to 100 g
  • Nylon or pure bristle brush

IS Code

Determining the fineness of cement by using a 90 µm IS sieve is done as per IS 4031 (Part 1) – 1996.

Result 

The standard value of fineness of cement should have fineness less than 10 % or fineness should not be more than 10% as per IS Recommendations.

Read More: What Is Fineness of Cement | Fineness Test of Cement


2. Standard Consistency Test

The standard consistency of cement paste is defined as the percentage of water added In 300gm weight of cement which will permit a Vicat plunger having 50 mm length and 10 mm diameter to penetrate in cement paste to a depth of 33-35 mm from the top of the mold

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Vicat Apparatus

Apparatus

  • Vicat apparatus
  • Balance
  • Gauging Trowel
  • Stop Watch, etc.

IS Code

Consistency Test of Cement IS Codes – IS: 5513-1976,  IS: 4031 ( Part 4 ) – 1988

Result

The standard consistency of cement paste generally varies between 25-35%.


3. Initial and Final Setting Time Of Cement Test

Initial Setting Time gives an idea about how fast cement can start losing its plasticity and the final setting time of cement gives an idea about how much Time cement takes to lose its full plasticity and gain some strength to resist pressure.

Initial Setting Time of Cement: It is the time elapsed between the moments that the water is added to the cement, to the time that the paste starts losing its plasticity.

Final Setting Time of Cement: It is the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement and the time when cement paste loses its plasticity completely and has attained sufficient firmness to resist certain definite pressure. 

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Initial And Final Setting Time of Cement Test

IS Code

As Per  IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988 The initial and final setting time of cement is calculated using the VICAT apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 – 1976.

Apparatus

  • Balance 
  • Vicat Apparatus 
  • Stop Watch
  • Gauging or Mixing Trowel
  • Glass Plate
  • Enamel Tray

Result

As per standards, the initial setting time of cement should be less than 30 min for OPC cement. Whereas, it should not be more than 600 min for OPC cement.

Read More: Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test | Initial Setting Time of Cement | Final Setting Time of Cement


4. Soundness Test of Cement 

The soundness of cement indicates the stability of any cement during the volume change in the process of setting and hardening.

In case the volume change in cement is unstable after setting and hardening, the concrete element will crack, which can affect the quality of the structure or even cause serious accidents, known as poor dimensional stability.

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Soundness Test Apparatus (Le-Chatelier)

Apparatus

  1. Le-Chatelier mold
  2. Cement
  3. Glass sheets
  4. Mixing pan
  5. Trowel
  6. Wight

IS Code

IS Code for soundness test of cement is IS: 4031-Part 3-1988

Result

The soundness calculated L1 – L2 for the types of cement Ordinary or OPC, Rapid, Low Heat, PPC, and High alumina cement should not Exceeds 10mm.


5. Heat Of Hydration Test

During the Curing of Concrete, Hydro-thermal Reaction takes place, resulting in the production of heat because of chemical reactions. The rise of heat in concrete could be as high as 50oC.

Hence in order to reduce such heat, low heat cement is used. The test is carried out using a calorimeter using the principle of heat gain.

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Calorimeter

Apparatus

Calorimeter, insulated wood case, thermometer plus holder, vacuum jar with stopper, glass funnel, stirring paddle, and chuck are the apparatus required for the test.

IS Code

IS 4031-1968 is recommended for testing the heat of hydration of Cement. 

Result

It has been Standardised that the low heat cement should not generate the heat of 65 Calories per gram of cement in 7 days and 75 Calories per gram for the duration of 28 days.


 6. Specific Gravity Test On Cement

 The specific gravity of cement is defined as the mass of cement of specified volume to the mass of water of the same volume of cement. It can also be defined as the density of cement to the density of water for the same volume.

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Specific Gravity Test Apparatus

Apparatus

  1. Le Chaterlier”s flask
  2. Weighing balance
  3. Kerosene (free from water).

IS Code

IS code for Specific Gravity Test is IS 2720- Part 3

Results

The Specific Gravity of Cement is 1440 kg/m3. Around this value, the Specific Gravity of Cement is Considered to be standard and suitable for construction.

Read More: Specific Gravity of Cement | Specific Gravity Test on Cement


7. Tensile Strength Test

The Tensile Strength of Cement is the maximum load that cement in its hardened state can withstand without fracture when tension is applied.

It is necessary to test the tensile strength of cement or concrete because concrete structures are highly prone to tensile cracking due to various kinds of load applied. As compares to Compressive Strength Tensile strength is very low.

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Testing Machine

Apparatus

  • Testing Machine
  • Tamping Rod
  • Concrete Mould
  • Trowel

IS Code

IS:456 2000 gives the formula for calculating the tensile strength of concrete.

Result

The Tensile Strength of Cement is between 3-5 MPa i.e 300 – 700 psi.


8. Chemical Composition Test

The components present in cement for forming cement as the complete products are lime or limestone, silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O2), magnesia (MgO), etc. Among which most important of the raw materials required for making cement are limestone, clay, and marl.

Cement Test | 8 Test on Cement | Cement Testing Methods
Flame Photometer

Apparatus

Flame Photometer and ELE Flame Photometer are the instruments used to know the constitutes of Cement.

IS Code

IS 269-1998 is recommended for keeping a check on the chemical composition of cement.

Result

A good cement should have the constitution of components as per listed,

  • Lime or Limestone – 62% (Highest)
  • Silica (SiO2) – 22%
  • Alumina (Al2O2) – 7.5%
  • Magnesia (MgO) – 2.5 %
  • Other Comonents – remaining 6%

FAQs

Tests for Cement

To check the quality of cement some of the following tests are performed on cement,
1. Fineness Test of Cement
2. Consistency Test of Cement
3. Setting Time Test of Cement
4. Soundness Test of Cement
5. The Heat of Hydration Test
6. Specific Gravity Test of Cement
7.Tensile Strength Test
8. Chemical Composition Test

How the quality of cement is tested?

The quality of Cement is tested by performing various lab tests as well as on-site checks. In these tests properties of cement are tested, and the result is analyzed. Depending on the resulting quality of cement can be estimated.

What tests are done for cement in laboratory?

Test done on cement in the laboratory are – Fineness Test of Cement, Consistency Test of Cement, Setting Time Test of Cement, Soundness Test of Cement, The Heat of Hydration Test, Specific Gravity Test of Cement, Tensile Strength Test, Chemical Composition Test.

What are the 5 types of cement?

Different Types of Cement are used in the construction of various structures. In which major types of cement are,
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
3. High Alumina Cement
4. Rapid Hardening Cement
5. Low Heat Cement
6. Quick setting cement
7. Sulfates Resisting Cement
8. Blast Furnace Slag Cement

Which test is done to check the proper grinding of cement?

The fineness Test is done to measure particle size and proper grinding of cement, which are denoted in terms of the specific surface area of cement. The Fineness Test of Cement is done by sieving cement sample through standard IS sieve. 

Laboratory Test of Cement

The following tests are conducted on cement in the laboratory,
1. Fineness Test of Cement
2. Consistency Test of Cement
3. Setting Time Test of Cement
4. Soundness Test of Cement
5. The Heat of Hydration Test
6. Specific Gravity Test of Cement
7.Tensile Strength Test
8. Chemical Composition Test

Cement Testing Methods

The following are methods of cement testing,
1. Fineness Test of Cement
2. Consistency Test of Cement
3. Setting Time Test of Cement
4. Soundness Test of Cement
5. The Heat of Hydration Test
6. Specific Gravity Test of Cement
7.Tensile Strength Test
8. Chemical Composition Test


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