Thermal insulation is a critical aspect of building design and construction, playing a pivotal role in enhancing energy efficiency and maintaining comfortable indoor environments. The choice of thermal insulation materials in buildings is fundamental to regulating heat flow, managing temperature variations, and minimizing energy consumption.
These materials act as barriers against heat transfer, preventing the loss or gain of heat through walls, roofs, and floors. The significance of thermal insulation extends beyond mere energy conservation; it influences the overall sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental impact of buildings.
What Do You Mean By Thermal Insulation?
The process of heat reduction and heat transfer between the thermal object within the range of radioactive influence, is called a process of Thermal insulation. This thermal insulation in buildings can be achieved by professionally engineered processes or methods, as well as with suitable materials and shapes of objects.
In thermal insulation, different types of finishes are used to protect the insulation from environmental and mechanical attack damage and give an excellent aesthetic appearance.
Thermal Insulation Materials In Building
It is a very favorable insulation used in the latest time. It can minimize heat transfer. It is made out of finely woven silicon, glass powder, and tiny shades of glass.
It is one of the most eco-friendly forms of insulation. It is made from recycled cardboard, paper, and other similar material that comes in loose foam. That is used to reduce heat loss and gain, noise trance missions in the building. Generally, it is installed on walls, ceilings, and flooring.
For installation blowing equipment is required. For this 3-inch, diameter hose pipe is used.
3. Mineral Wool
It is one fiberglass that is made from recycled glass. It is also known as glass wool. Finally, nowadays a day referred to as slag wool which is the best material and produce from slag is produced from steel mills.
This material is purchased in bats and as a loose material in the weight of a ton.
This type of material is also known as styrofoam. This is waterproof thermoplastic foam. This is excellent in sound conditions and temperature insulation material. It comes in 2 types: expanded and extruded.
These two types differ in performance and cost. Does insulation has an unequally smooth surface that no other type of insulation possesses? Usually, the foam is created and cut into the blocks and its deal is foam for wall insulation.
5. Polyurethane Foam
It is the most excellent form of insulation. Nowadays, it is used non-chlorofluorocarbon gas. It helps to reduce the amount of harness to the ozone layer.
Some of the material contains very low conductivity of gas in their sales which is very difficult to maintain. Polyurethane insulation is available as a liquid-sprayed dorm and rigid foam board.
It is directly fixed on a surface like brick blocks, concrete, etc. It is also used in unfinished masonry. Insulation no use full-size cut polyurethane foam into the required size needed.
After cutting cover the back of the foam with the foam construction chemical or adhesive. Press the adhesive side of the sheet against the masonry surface; seal the joints between the sheets with expanding foam.
It is a volcanic rock containing from 2 to 5 percent bonded water. It is a chemically inert substance composed basically of silica and aluminum but with some impurities.
These insulation materials have a good temperature of expansion and granulometric of the mineral before the expansion process.
Cork is the insulation used commercially in the past, it was used as insulation material in the cooling industry. At present due to the scarcity of cork- trees, their prices are precisely high in comparison with other insulating materials.
Therefore, its use is very limited, except for chine foundations to reduce the transmission of vibrations.
8. Ceramic Fiber Blanket
It shall be refractory oxides consisting primarily of alumina and silica, with small amounts of impurities permitted, processed from a molten state into fibrous form without binder.
6. Slab or block insulation
The block insulation was manufactured from mineral wool, corkboard, cellular rubber, glass, sawdust, etc. This is fixed on the walls and roofs to prevent heat loss and maintain the required temperature. These insulation blocks are available in 60cm x 120cm with a 2.5cm thickness.
9. Blanket insulation
It is material available in blanket shape or like paper rolls which are directly spread over the wall and ceiling. It is flexible and has a thickness of about 20mm to 80mm, and this blanket is made up of animal hair, cotton wood fibers, etc.
10. Loose-fill insulation
Stud is provided in the wall where windows and doors are to be provided that studding space of wall loose fill of some insulating material provided. The material is rock wool, wool fiber wool, and cellulose.
11. Bat-insulating material
This is also available as blanket rolls but bat insulating rolls have more thickness than blanket-type material. These are spread over the walls & ceilings to prevent heat.
12. Insulating Board
Insulating boards are made from the pulp of wood, cane, or other materials. This pulp is pressed hard with some stress at a suitable temperature to make it a solid board.
They are available in many sizes in the market and these are generally for walls as well as for partition walls.
13. Reflective Sheet Material
It is a sheet material like aluminum sheet and gypsum board; steel sheets will have more reflective and low emissivity. So, these types of materials have high heat prevention.
This heat gets reduced when solar energy is striking and gets reflected and goes back. This type is fixed outside of the structure or building to stop the incoming heat entrance into the building.
14. Lightweight Materials
using this type of material while preparing concrete mixture will also result in good heat loss prevention. Concrete will have more weight aggregate like blast furnace slag, burnt clay, etc
15. By Providing Roof Shade
Providing roof shade for the building at the place where the sun directly strikes the building during peak hours we can reduce the heat by shading the roof.
An accurate angle must be needed to prevent sunlight. Shading is very difficult when the altitude angle of the sun is high during peak hours in the afternoon, between 1100h and 1500h.
When we construct more height parapet walls can help only when the altitude angle of the sun is very low.
16. By The Proper Height of the Ceiling
The heat is absorbed by the ceiling and emitted downward direction to the building. But the point that needs to be noted the vertical gradient of radiation intensity is not significant beyond 1 to 1.3m.
It means it can travel up to 1 to 1.3m downward direction from the ceiling. So this provision of the ceiling at 1 to 1.3m ht must be needed to reduce the sunlight and heat loss.
17. Orientation of Building
the building orientation for the sun is an important source of things so, the building should be constructed in an orientation in such a way that it should not be subject to more heat losses.
How Does Insulation Work on the Concept of Heat Flow or Heat Transfer?
Generally, the sun’s heat always flows from warm to cooler surfaces, the flow of heat does not stop until the temperature on the two surfaces is equal.
Heat is transferred in three different ways;
Conduction: This is the process by which heat is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference in temperature without movement of the material.
Conduction is direct heat flow through solids. Heat is transferred by molecular motion molecules transmitting their energy to adjoining molecules of lesser heat content, whose motion is thereby increased.
Convection: the movement of heat within a fluid. Fluid is one of a substances which is in form of gas or liquid.
The movement of heat-carrying fluid is primarily influenced by natural convection or forced convection, as in the case of a forced air furnace.
Radiation: The transmission of energy through space using electromagnetic waves. Radiated heat travels like the speed of light throughout the air without heating the space between two different surfaces.
- Thermal conductivity k is measured in watts per meter per kelvin (w∙m⁻¹∙k⁻¹ or w/m/k). This is done by heat transfer, measured in power, which has been affected by some of the factors,
- The difference in temperature
- The surface area of thermal contact
- The thickness of the material
Purpose of Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation maintains a comfortable and desirable temperature throughout the building. It is required to protect the constructional element against thermal impact and moisture-related damage.
Space heating and cooling systems distribute heat throughout the building using pipes or ductwork. Insulation of pipes is to energy from not usable rooms and prevent condensation from upcoming on the cold pipe and chilled pipe work.
The refrigerator maintains the heat pump and main compartment which is thermally insulated. The main purpose of insulation is to reduce the transference of heat. In winter conditions energy conservation leads to a decrease in heating damage. It prevents the summertime overheating of buildings.
Requirement of Thermal Insulation
- Save energy by reducing the rate of sun heat transfer in buildings.
- Maintenance of process temperature.
- Prevent freezing, cooling, vaporization, and construction of undesirable compounds.
- Protection of self from harm through contact with the equipment and objects.
- Prevention of cooling on the surface of objects transfers fluids at very low temperatures.
- Omission of increase in equipment temperature from outside high fire.
- To conserve refrigeration.
- Offer good process control equipment by maintaining the process temperature.
- Avoidance of corrosion from keeping the exposed surface of a refrigerated equipment system above the haze point
- Absorption of vibration
The Necessity of Thermal Insulation
- To prevent heat transmission entering from the surrounding of heat warm air.
- To give support to reduce energy requirements for refrigeration systems if needed.
Advantages of Thermal Insulation
- Thermal insulation keeps the buildings cool in summer and warm in winter, that’s why results come in comfortable living and natural conditions.
- Due to the insulation requirement of heating in winter and refrigeration system in summer is day by day reduced. So the result is very low maintenance costs and fuel savings.
- The use of thermal insulation material inside a building it’s prevents moisture from deposal on inside walls and ceiling of the house, etc.
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