Structural components of building

18 Components of Building | Building Structure | Parts of a Building

The basic Components of a Building Structure are the Footing, Column, Beam, Slab, Lintel, Doors, Windows, Sill, DPC. Earth Filling, Parapet Wall etc. These parts of building serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing and protecting the building structure.

Structural Components
Components of Building (structural parts of a building)

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Components of Building

Following is list of building components and standard size of building components,

1. Foundation

A Foundation is the lowest part of the building structure rested on soil below ground level. All loads of building transferred to foundation through-beam and column arrangement. Its main function is to distribute the load evenly and safely to the ground.

structural components of Building
Building Foundation

In framed structure, Footings are generally used as foundation to support structural load of building.

Following are various types of foundations and footings used in construction:

  1. Shallow foundation
    • Individual footing or isolated footing
    • Combined footing
    • Strip foundation
    • Raft or mat foundation
  2. Deep Foundation
    • Pile foundation
    • Drilled Shafts or caissons

Standard Dimensions:

Foundation size, depth totally depends on the structural and site ground condition. So, there are no standard dimension recommendations for it.

But, For small structural like row houses depth of foundation should be at  least 1.5 m from ground level.

2. Plinth Level

elements of building construction
Plinth Height or Level

Plinth level or Plinth is the offset created between ground level and superstructure of the ding. It is made by constructing a brick wall from ground level to the ring level of the building. Its main function is to prevent the entry of moisture from the nd surface to the building superstructure.

Standard Dimensions:

Plinth height of any building must be at least 45 cm from the ground level.

3. Earth Filling

An Earth Filling or Soil Filling is done between the plinth wall. It is essential to fill the open space left between the ground level to the plinth level. Earth filling must be very well compacted, so that the flooring gets sufficient hard surface base.

 Standard Dimensions:

Earth must be filled to the top of the plinth level. Different materials can utilize as earth fill like soil, coarse aggregate, waste materials, Brick Bat, etc.

Read More: How To Calculate Tiles Needed For A Floor

4. DPC (Damp Proof Course)

DPC is a layer of waterproofing material such as asphalt or waterproof cement at the plinth level. The superstructure walls are constructed above the DPC layer, so that no dampness rises from the ground surface into walls.

structural components of Building
DPC ( Damp Proof Course)

In short, DPC prevent the rise of water to superstructure.

If dampness rises in the wall of the superstore it reduces the strength of the walls and creates unhealthy living conditions. Also it created many defects in paint and plaster and ultimately increase maintenance cost.

In the case of Plinth beams are provided above ground level DPC is not required. Because plinth Beam itself performs as a DPC layer to restrict the entry of dampness.

Standard Dimensions:

Generally, DPC is laid on brick masonry construction up to the plinth level. So the width of DPC is the same as the width of the Brick wall and thickness may vary from 2.5cm to 5cm.

standard sizes of building components pdf

5. Flooring

Flooring is an important component of the home. It is one which provided an attractive and pleasant look to the house. Flooring is made by laying tile on it. There are different designs and materials are available to make flooring.

1. Timber Flooring

2. Laminated Flooring

3. Vinyl Flooring

4. Porcelain or ceramic Tile Flooring

5. Natural Stone Flooring – Marble, Granite etc.

Standard Dimensions:

Flooring is provided above earth filling with base made of cement concrete (1:2:4). Flooring material should have sufficient thickness and strength.

Read More: Difference Between Footing And Foundation

6. Walls

Walls are the vertical component in any structure. It can be constructed using stones, bricks, concrete blocks, etc. The different types of bonds are used for constructing walls. Bricks walls are essential to enclose the inside area and protect against wind, sunshine, rain, etc. Doors and Windows are provided in the walls for ventilation and access to the building.

Standard Dimensions:

Walls may be made single brick walls or double brick walls. The single brick wall has a thickness of 100 mm and the Double brick wall has a thickness of 230mm.

7. RCC Column

Columns are vertical members constructed to support any structural frame. Load Coming from the Slab, Beam transferred to column and column transfer load to the footing safely. Building structure may have two types of columns.

Architectural columns and structural columns. Architectural columns primly used to increase the aesthetic appearance of building while a structural column takes the load coming from the slab above and transfers safely to the foundation.

structural components of Building
RCC Column and Beam

Standard Dimensions:

Column may have various sizes as per the structural load requirements. But, for minimum dimension for any structural column is restricted to 9” x 9” or 225mmx225mm.

8. Sill Level

It is the base point of any window in the house or it is a level where windows are placed.  Sill level is very important to ensure evenness in all window level. Sill is a height which is ensuring that the proper amount of light enters in the house. It also provides easy to habitant to look outside through the window without any discomfort. It provides a solid base for window installment.

Standard Dimensions:

Sill level of any house should be around 3 ft or 900 mm.

structural components of Building

9. Lintel

Lintels are constructed from reinforce cement concrete. It is provided above the wall openings like doors, windows etc. The Lintel actually takes the load coming on window and door openings.  In Sort, lintel safe guard the door and window from excess load coming from above.  In residential building, lintel can be constructed from concrete or brick masonry.

Standard Dimension

Generally, the lintel width is as same as the width of wall and thickness between 4” to 6”

10. Ceiling

Ceiling is not a separate part, but is a bottom face of any slab. Ceiling is most important part of any room, because it can be decorated to increase esthetic appearance. POP (Plaster of Paris) is a material used for making false ceilings. It is a location where we can hang decorative items, fan etc to increase architecture view of room.

Standard Dimension

Ceiling height is kept 9’ 6” to 10’ 6”. (it can be more or less as per requirement)

Read More: 17 Tips For How To Reduce Construction Cost

11. Chhajjas

Chhajjas also called as Weather shed. This is a structure which is constructed above window projected outside from window face. The main function of weather shed to restrict the direct entry of rain water and sunlight. Chhajjas are constructed from Reinforce cement concrete.

Standard Dimensions

 The Length of Chhajjas = Width of Window + 0.15m Bearing on both Side

Width of Chhajjas = 0.45 m to 0.60 m.

12. RCC Beam

structural components of Building
RCC Beam

RCC Beam is important component in any frame structure. Beam is horizontal member which connect column on both side. It main function is to take load from upper structure and transfer it to column. Generally, column to beam connection is called direct support while the beam to beam connection is called indirect support. In most of cases the beam supported by two columns and the most rarely used is the cantilever beam. 

Standard Dimension

Beam minimum dimension is 9” x 9” (Thumb Rule)

13. Roof or RCC Slab

Roof is an essential structural components of building for any structure, which provides protection again environmental factors like sun, wind, and rain. Generally, All roof rests on sidewalls and required anchoring so that wind and another mechanical impact cannot destroy it. Roof may have different shapes, but flat and sloped roofs are more popular. Typically most of roofs are constructed from RCC, stone slab, tiles, etc.

 Standard Dimension

Generally, RCC Slab Thickness can have minimum dimension 4” to 6” as per requirement.

14. Doors

Doors are the main entry and exit point of any house. Without doors, there will be no security in house. They are one which separates the one room from others. Doors have lock-key facility, so we can lock the house by locking the door and go out freely. They are made of strong material like steel, wood, iron. Therefore, they are not easily breakable.

There are different types of doors used in house,

  1. Hinged Doors
  2. Dutch Doors
  3. Roller Doors
  4. Bifold Doors
  5. Sliding Doors
  6. Pivot Doors
  7. French Doors
  8. Panel Doors
  9. PVC Doors
  10. Flush Doors

Standard Dimension

Main door of the drawing-room, bedroom, kitchen may have a width up to 2’6” to 3’ and other rooms like bath, W/C is 2’ to 3’. Height of Doors is almost 7’ every time or up to lintel level.

Read More: 25 + Types Of Doors For Your Perfect House

15. Windows

Windows are one of an essential component of any house or building. It is one that allows fresh air and light to enter into the house. Without window house becomes darkroom or jail.

Windows are provided at sill level and their height extended up to lintel level. There are various types of windows used in house like

  1. Single Hung Windows
  2. Arched Windows
  3. Awning Windows
  4. Bay Windows
  5. Bow Windows
  6. Casement Windows
  7. Garden Windows
  8. Glass Block Windows
  9. Round Circle Windows
  10. Skylight Windows
  11. Sliding Windows
  12. Transom Windows

Standard Dimension

Window opening width may change depending as per requirement but its height generally kept 1.4m from sill level or up to the bottom of the lintel.

16. Parapet Walls

structural elements of a building
Parapet Wall

It a low height wall built along the edge of the roof, terrace, walkway, balcony etc. Parapet walls can be constructed using different materials like reinforced cement concrete, steel, aluminium, glass etc. It is generally constructed with single brick wall.

Standard Dimensions:

Parapet wall height is 3 ft or 0.90 m.

17. Waterproofing on Terrace

Damp proof course is the protective layer to restrict the movement of moisture, water through roof slab. For DPC on roof flexible materials are used which provide a lesser number of joints like mastic, asphalt, bitumen felts, plastic sheets, etc.

18. Copping

Coping is structure which is constructed on top of Boundary walls & parapet wall etc. to protect rain water directly store on brick masonry wall.

The main function of coping is to drain off rainwater during the rainy season & improves the aesthetics of the structure/wall.

Watch Video: Structural Components of Building and Their Standard Dimensions

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