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## How to Calculate Load on Column, Beam & Slab

The total **Load Calculation on Columns, Beam, Slab** we must **know **about **various loads **coming on the **column**. **Generally**, the **Column**, **Beam**, and **Slab** **arrangement **are **seen **in a **frame type** of **structure**.

In the **frame structure**, the load is **transferred slab to beam**, **beam to column **and **ultimately **it **reached **the **foundation of the building**.

For **load calculation **of **building**, **loads **on the following **elements** are to be **calculated**,

**What Is Column**

**Column length **is generally **3 times** their least **lateral cross-sectional dimension**. The **Strength **of any column mainly **depends **on its **shape **and **size **of **cross**–**section**, **length**, **location**, and **position **of the **column**.

A Column is a **vertical component** in a **building structure**, which is mainly **designed **to carry the **compressive **and **buckling load**. The **column **is one of the **important **structural **members **of the **building structure**. As per **Load** coming on the **column**, size is **increased **or **decreased**.

**Load Calculation on Column**

## What Is Beam

The **Beam **is a **horizontal structural member **in **building construction**, which is **designed **to carry **shear force, bending** **moment**, and **transfer **the **load to columns **on **both ends **of it. **Beam’s **bottom portion **experiences tension force** and **upper portion compression force**. Therefore, More **steel reinforcement** is **provided **at the **bottom compared **to the **top **of the **beam**.

**What Is Slab**

The **slab **is a level** structural element **of the **building **which **provided **to create a **flat hard surface**. These **flat surfaces** of **slabs **are **utilized **for **making ****floors**, **roofs**, and **ceilings**.

It is a **horizontal structural member **whose size may **vary depending **upon the **structure size **and **area **and its **thickness **also may vary.

But** slab minimum thickness** is **specified **for **normal construction **around **125 mm**. **Generally**, every slab is **supported **by a **beam**, **column**, and **wall around **it.

**Load On Column, Beam & Slab**

**1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors**

**2) Beams Self Weight per running meter**

**3) A load of walls per running meter**

**4) The total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight)**

**Besides **this above **loading**, the **columns **are also **subjected **to **bending moments** that **have** to be **considered **in the final **design**.

The **most effective **method for** designing structure** is to use **advanced structural ****design software** like **ETABS or STAAD Pro.**

These **tools **are **reduced laborious **and **consuming methods** of manual **calculations **for **structural design**, this is **highly **recommended **nowadays **in the **field**.

for **professional **structural **design **practice, there are some **basic assumptions **we use for **structural loading calculations**.

**Read More**: **Steel Quantity Calculation Excel Sheet**

**Column Design Calculation**

** 1. Load Calculation on Column **

we **know **that the **Self**–**weight **of **Concrete** is around **2400 kg/m3,** which is **equivalent **to **240 kN** and the **Self**–**weight **of **Steel **is around **8000 kg/m3.**

So, if we **assume **a **column size **of **230 mm x 600 mm** with **1% steel** and **3 meters** **standard height**, the **self**–**weight **of the **column **is around **1000 kg** per floor, which is **equal **to **10 kN. **

**Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg****Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete**=**0.414x 0.01 x 8000****= 33 kg****Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg****= 10KN**

While doing **column **design **calculations**, we **assume **the **self**–**weight **of **columns **is between **10 to 15 kN per floor.**

**2. Beam Load Calculation**

We **adopt **the same **method of calculations** for **beams **also.

we **assume each meter **of the **beam **has **dimensions **of **230 mm x 450 mm** excluding **slab thickness**.

**Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has a dimension **

**230 mm x 450 mm excluding**slab.**Volume of Concrete**=**0.23 x 0.60 x 1 =**0.138m³**Weight of Concrete**=**0.138 x 2400**= 333 kg**Weight of Steel**(2%) in Concrete =**0.138 x 0.02 x 8000**= 22 kg**Total Weight of Column =****333 + 22**= 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m

So, the self-**weight **will be around **3.5 kN** per **running meter**.

**3. Wall Load Calculation**

we know that the **Density** of **bricks varies **between **1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. **

For a **6 inch thick **Brick wall of **3**–**meter **height and a **length of 1 meter**,

The** load / running **meter to be equal to **0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg, **

which is **equivalent **to **9 kN/meter. **

This **method **can be **adopted **for load **calculations of Brick** per **running meter **for any **brick type** using this **technique**.

For **aerated concrete **blocks and **autoclaved **concrete **blocks**, like **Aerocon **or **Siporex**, the **weight per cubic meter **is between **550 to 700 kg **per cubic meter.

if **you **are **using **these **blocks **for **construction**, the **wall loads per running meter **can be as low as **4 kN/meter**, the use of this **block **can **significantly **reduce the **cost **of the **project**.

### 4. **Slab Load Calculation**

**Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. **

So, the **Self**–**weight** of each** square meter **of the **slab would **be

**= 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN.**

Now, If we **consider** the **Finishing load **to be 1 kN per meter and the **superimposed **live load to be **2 kN** per meter.

So, from the **above **data, we can **estimate **the slab load to be around **6 to 7 kN per square meter.**

**5. The Factor of Safety**

In the end, after **calculating **the **entire load **on a **column**, do not **forget **to **add **in the **factor of safety**, which is most **important **for any **building design** for the **safe **and **convenient performance **of the **building **during its **design life** **duration**.

This is **important **when **Load Calculation on Column** is done.

**As Per IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.**

**how to calculate the load of a building pdf download**

## How to Calculate Column Size For Building

A** column** is one of the **important elements **of any **building structure**. The **column size** for the **building** is **calculated **as per **load coming** on the **column **from the **superstructure.**

For **buildings **with **heavy loading conditions**, the **column size** is **increased**. The **column size **is an important** factor **while **designing **any **building structure.**

**Difference column sizes used in building design**,

- 9″ x 9″
- 9″ x 12″
- 12″ x 12″
- 12″ x 15″
- 15″ x 18″
- 18″ x 18″
- 20″ x 24″
- As per
**Structural load,**more sizes

For Column **size calculation **we **required **the **following data**,

**Grade of Steel****Grade of Concrete****Factored Load on Column**

**(Note:** **Minimum size **of the **column **should not be **less than 9″ x 9″ ( 230 mm x 230 mm)**

The **following **are **column** **design calculations **steps to decide the **size **of the **column **for the **building**.

**Pu = 0.4 f _{ck} A_{c }+ 0.67 f_{y} A_{sc} ( Clause No: 39.3 Page No: 71 IS 456:2000)**

**Pu = Axial Load on Column****f**_{ck}= Characteristics compressive strength of concrete**A**_{c}= Area of Concrete**f**_{y}= Characteristics Tensile strength of concrete**A**_{sc}= Area of Steel Reinforcement**A**_{c}= A_{g}– A_{sc}**A**_{sc}= 0.01 A_{g}**A**_{c}= 0.99 A_{g}

**Where A _{g} = Gross Area of Column**

**Consider 1% of Steel in Column,**

**A _{c} = A_{g –} A_{sc}**

**Example:** **Design **an **RCC square short column** **subjected **to an** axial compressive load of 600 KN**. The grade of **concrete** is **M -20** and the **Grade of steel** is **Fe -500**. Take **Steel 1%** and **Factor of safety = 1.5.**

**Pu = 600 KN, f _{ck} = 20 N/mm^{2}, f_{y} = 500 N/mm^{2}, Steel = 1%, Factor of Safety = 1.5**

**Pu = Axial Compressive Load on Column = 600 KN**

**Factored load on column = Pu = 600 x 1.5 = 900 KN**

**P _{u }= 0.4 f_{ck} A_{c }+ 0.67 f_{y} A_{sc}**

**900 x 10 ^{3} = 0.4 x 20 x (0.99 A_{g}) + 0.67 x 500 x (0.01 A_{g})**

**900 x 10 ^{3} = 7.92 A_{g} + 3.35 A_{g} **

**900 x 10 ^{3} = 11.27 A_{g} **

** A _{g} = 79858 mm^{2}**

**For Square Column**,

**Size of Column** = √79858

**Size of Column **= 282.59 mm

**Provide square column size 285 mm x 285 mm**

A_{g} = Provided = 81225 mm^{2}

A_{sc} = 0.01 A_{g} = 0.01 x 81225

** A _{sc} = 812.25 mm^{2}**

Provide** 8 Nos of 12 mm Dia** steel with an area of steel = **905 mm ^{2}**

The **size of the column** for **600 KN** load is **285 mm x 285 mm** **(12″ x12″)**

**Watch Video:** **Load Calculation on Column**

## FAQs

### How do you calculate beam load?

Factors contributing to the total load of the beam are the** Weight of Concrete** and the **Weight of Steel (2%)** in Concrete.

Hence the **Total Weight of the beam** = **Weight of Concrete + Weight of Steel**.

The Approximate load of a beam of size 230mm x 450mm is around 3.5 KN/m.

### How do you calculate slab load on a beam?

Generally, the slab has a thickness of **125 mm.** So, the Self-weight of each square meter of the slab would be the **product of the thickness of the slab and per meter square load of concrete** which is estimated at around **3KN**.

Consider the Finishing load and superimposed live load,

The total slab load will be around **6 to 7 kN per square meter**.

### How to proceed with Wall Load Calculation?

**Wall Load Calculation:**

1. The density of brick **walls** with mortar is in the range of **1600-2200 kg/m3**. So we will consider the self-weight of the brick wall as 2200 kg/m3

2. We will consider dimensions of brick wall as Length = 1 meter, Width = 0.152 mm, and Height of = 2.5 meter, Hence Volume of wall = 1m× 0.152 m× 2.5 m = **0.38 m3**

3. Calculate the dead load of brick wall, which will be equal to, Weight = volume × density, Dead load = 0.38 m3 × 2200 kg/m3 = **836 kg/m**

4. Which is equal to** 8.36 kN/m** is the dead of the brick wall.

### What is a Column?

A **Column** is a vertical component in a building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the **compressive** and **buckling load**. The column is one of the important structural members of the building structure. As per Load coming on the column, size is increased or decreased.

### How to calculate the Dead Load of a Building

Calculation of **Dead load** for Building= **Volume of member x Unit weight of materials.**

It is done by simply calculating the accurate **volume of each member** and multiplying by the **unit weight of the respective materials** from which it is composed, and **dead load** can be determined for each component.

### Load Calculation on Column

**Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg****Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete **= **0.414x 0.01 x 8000** **= 33 kg****Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN**

### Beam Load Calculation

**300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.****Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg****Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg****Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m**

### Column Load

A Column is a vertical component in a building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the compressive and buckling load. Column length is generally 3 times their least lateral cross-sectional dimension. The Strength of any column mainly depends on its shape and size of cross-section, length, location, and position of the column.

### Dead Load Calculation for a Building

**Dead load** = volume of member x unit weight of materials.

By **calculating** the volume of each member and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate **dead load** can be determined for each component.

### Live load calculation

For Live Load calculation, you have to follow the permissible Live load values in IS-875. Generally, for residential building purposes, we take it 3 KN/m2. The value of LIVE LOAD is changed as a type of structure & for that, you have to see IS-875

### Load Calculation of Building

Building Load is a summation of dead load, live load, wind load, and snow load if building location in a snowfall area. Dead loads are static forces that remain the same for an extended time. They can be in tension or compression. **Live loads** are mostly variable or moving **loads**. These loads can have a significant dynamic element and may involve considerations such as impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, etc.

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Md Khaibul AlamVery useful tips its help every engineer in their field.please send that type of tips for civil engineering frequently.

Gopal Behera#Useful

Habibur rahmanIndeed these tips are very useful & helpful in the working field

Abdul Ajeesif we have 4 columns in a floor , should we multiple 10kn x 4 columns to find load? or we can put 10 kN for one floor randomly?

DheerajInterestingly this article has the same errors as seen on another post from 2011

Manjunath hukkeriSeriously I just loved the explanation

U explained each and every bit of it very cleanly

Thanks for this article sir

bodrick ikumbukothanks for the help i really needed

V Ranjith Kumargood

Azeez AkandeCan I have your what’s app number sir?