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## How to Calculate Load on Column, Beam & Slab

The total **Load Calculation on Columns, Beam, Slab** we must know about various loads coming on the column. Generally, the **Column**, **Beam**, and **Slab** arrangement are seen in a **frame type** of structure. In the **frame structure**, the load is transferred slab to beam, beam to column and ultimately it reached the **foundation of the building**.

For load calculation of building, **loads **on the following elements are to be calculated,

**What Is Column**

A Column is a **vertical component** in a **building structure**, which is mainly designed to carry the compressive and **buckling load**. The column is one of the important structural members of the building structure. As per **Load** coming on the **column**, size is increased or decreased.

Column length is generally **3 times** their least lateral **cross-sectional dimension**. The Strength of any column mainly depends on its **shape **and **size **of cross-section, length, location, and position of the column.

**Load Calculation on Column**

## What Is Beam

The Beam is a horizontal structural member in **building construction**, which is **designed **to carry **shear force, **bending moment, and **transfer **the load to columns on both ends of it. Beam’s bottom portion experiences **tension force** and upper portion **compression force**. Therefore, More **steel reinforcement** is provided at the bottom compared to the top of the beam.

**What Is Slab**

The slab is a level** structural element **of the building which provided to create a **flat hard surface**. These flat surfaces of slabs are utilized for making **floors**, **roofs**, and **ceilings**. It is a horizontal structural member whose size may vary depending upon the **structure size **and **area **and its **thickness **also may vary.

But** slab minimum thickness** is specified for normal construction around **125 mm**. Generally, every slab is supported by a beam, column, and wall around it.

**Load On Column, Beam & Slab**

**1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors**

**2) Beams Self Weight per running meter**

**3) A load of walls per running meter**

**4) The total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight)**

Besides this above loading, the **columns **are also subjected to **bending moments** that have to be considered in the final **design**.

The most effective method for** designing structure** is to use advanced structural **design software** like **ETABS or STAAD Pro.**

These tools are reduced **laborious **and **consuming methods** of manual calculations for **structural design**, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field.

for **professional **structural **design **practice, there are some basic **assumptions **we use for structural loading calculations.

**Read More**: **Steel Quantity Calculation Excel Sheet**

**Column Design Calculation**

** 1. Load Calculation on Column **

we know that the Self-weight of **Concrete** is around **2400 kg/m3,** which is equivalent to 240 kN and the Self-weight of Steel is around **8000 kg/m3.**

So, if we assume a column size of **230 mm x 600 mm** with **1% steel** and 3 meters standard height, the self-weight of the column is around **1000 kg** per floor, that id equal to **10 kN. **

**Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg****Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete**=**0.414x 0.01 x 8000****= 33 kg****Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg****= 10KN**

While doing column design calculations, we assume the self-weight of columns is between **10 to 15 kN per floor.**

**2. Beam Load Calculation**

We adopt the same **method of calculations** for **beams **also.

we assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of **230 mm x 450 mm** excluding slab thickness.

**Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension **

**230 mm x 450 mm**excluding slab.**Volume of Concrete**= 0.23 x 0.60 x 1 =0.138m³**Weight of Concrete**= 0.138 x 2400 = 333 kg**Weight of Steel**(2%) in Concrete = 0.138 x 0.02 x 8000 = 22 kg**Total Weight of Column =**333 + 22 = 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m

So, the self-weight will be around **3.5 kN** per running meter.

**3. Wall Load Calculation**

we know that the Density of bricks varies between **1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. **

For a 6 inch thick Brick wall of 3-meter height and a length of 1 meter,

The load / running meter to be equal to **0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg, **

which is equivalent to **9 kN/meter. **

This method can be adopted for load **calculations of Brick** per running meter for any **brick type** using this technique.

For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete blocks, like **Aerocon **or **Siporex**, the weight per cubic meter is between **550 to 700 kg **per cubic meter.

if your are using these blocks for **construction**, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as **4 kN/meter**, use of this **block **can significantly reduce the cost of the project.

### 4. **Slab Load Calculation**

Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of **125 mm. **

So, the Self-weight of each** square meter **of the slab would be

**= 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN.**

Now, If we consider the **Finishing load **to be 1 kN per meter and **superimposed **live load to be **2 kN** per meter.

So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be around **6 to 7 kN per square meter.**

**5. The Factor of Safety**

In the end, after **calculating **the **entire load **on a column, do not forget to add in the factor of safety, which is most important for any **building design** for the **safe **and **convenient **performance of the building during its **design life** duration.

This is important when **Load Calculation on Column** is done.

**As Per IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.**

**how to calculate the load of a building pdf download**

## How to Calculate Column Size For Building

A** column** is one of the **important elements **of any building structure. The **column size** for the **building** is calculated as per **load coming** on the column from the **superstructure.**

For buildings with **heavy loading conditions**, the **column size** is increased. The **column size **is an important** factor **while designing any **building structure.**

**Difference column sizes used in building design**,

- 9″ x 9″
- 9″ x 12″
- 12″ x 12″
- 12″ x 15″
- 15″ x 18″
- 18″ x 18″
- 20″ x 24″
- As per
**Structural load**more**size**can be used.

For Column size calculation we required the following data,

**Grade of Steel****Grade of Concrete****Factored Load on Column**

**(Note:** Minimum size of the column should not be less than** 9″ x 9″ ( 230 mm x 230 mm)**

The following are column design calculations steps to decide the size of the column for the building.

**Pu = 0.4 f _{ck} A_{c }+ 0.67 f_{y} A_{sc} ( Clause No: 39.3 Page No: 71 IS 456:2000)**

Pu = Axial Load on Column

f_{ck} = Characteristics compressive strength of concrete

A_{c} = Area of Concrete

f_{y} = Characteristics Tensile strength of concrete

A_{sc} = Area of Steel Reinforcement

A_{c} = A_{g} – A_{sc}

A_{sc} = 0.01 A_{g}

A_{c} = 0.99 A_{g}

Where A_{g} = Gross Area of Column

Consider 1% of Steel in Column,

A_{c} = A_{g –} A_{sc}

**Example:** Design an **RCC square short column** subjected to an** axial compressive load of 600 KN**. The grade of **concrete** is **M -20** and the **Grade of steel** is **Fe -500**. Take **Steel 1%** and **Factor of safety = 1.5.**

Pu = 600 KN, f_{ck} = 20 N/mm^{2}, f_{y} = 500 N/mm^{2}, Steel = 1%, Factor of Safety = 1.5

Pu = Axial Compressive Load on Column =** 600 KN**

Factored load on column = Pu = 600 x 1.5 = **900 KN**

**P _{u }= 0.4 f_{ck} A_{c }+ 0.67 f_{y} A_{sc}**

900 x 10^{3} = 0.4 x 20 x (0.99 A_{g}) + 0.67 x 500 x (0.01 A_{g})

900 x 10^{3} = 7.92 A_{g} + 3.35 A_{g}

900 x 10^{3} = 11.27 A_{g}

** A _{g} = 79858 mm^{2}**

**For Square Column**,

Size of Column = √79858

Size of Column = 282.59 mm

**Provide square column size 285 mm x 285 mm**

A_{g} = Provided = 81225 mm^{2}

A_{sc} = 0.01 A_{g} = 0.01 x 81225

** A _{sc} = 812.25 mm^{2}**

Provide** 8 Nos of 12 mm Dia** steel with an area of steel = **905 mm ^{2}**

The **size of the column** for **600 KN** load is **285 mm x 285 mm** **(12″ x12″)**

**Watch Video:** **Load Calculation on Column**

## FAQs

### How do you calculate beam load?

Factors contributing to the total load of the beam are the** Weight of Concrete** and the **Weight of Steel (2%)** in Concrete.

Hence the **Total Weight of the beam** = **Weight of Concrete + Weight of Steel**.

The Approximate load of a beam of size 230mm x 450mm is around 3.5 KN/m.

### How do you calculate slab load on a beam?

Generally, the slab has a thickness of **125 mm.** So, the Self-weight of each square meter of the slab would be the **product of the thickness of the slab and per meter square load of concrete** which is estimated at around **3KN**.

Consider the Finishing load and superimposed live load,

The total slab load will be around **6 to 7 kN per square meter**.

### How to proceed with Wall Load Calculation?

**Wall Load Calculation:**

1. The density of brick **walls** with mortar is in the range of **1600-2200 kg/m3**. So we will consider the self-weight of the brick wall as 2200 kg/m3

2. We will consider dimensions of brick wall as Length = 1 meter, Width = 0.152 mm, and Height of = 2.5 meter, Hence Volume of wall = 1m× 0.152 m× 2.5 m = **0.38 m3**

3. Calculate the dead load of brick wall, which will be equal to, Weight = volume × density, Dead load = 0.38 m3 × 2200 kg/m3 = **836 kg/m**

4.Which is equal to** 8.36 kN/m** is the dead of the brick wall.

### What is Column?

A **Column** is a vertical component in a building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the **compressive** and **buckling load**. The column is one of the important structural members of the building structure. As per Load coming on the column, size is increased or decreased.

### How to calculate Dead Load of a Building

Calculation of **Dead load** for Building= **Volume of member x Unit weight of materials.**

It is done by simply calculating the accurate **volume of each member** and multiplying by the **unit weight of the respective materials** from which it is composed, and **dead load** can be determined for each component.

### Load Calculation on Column

**Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg****Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete **= **0.414x 0.01 x 8000** **= 33 kg****Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN**

### Beam Load Calculation

**300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.****Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³****Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg****Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg****Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m**

### Column Load

A Column is a vertical component in a building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the compressive and buckling load. Column length is generally 3 times to their least lateral cross-sectional dimension. The Strength of any column mainly depends on its shape and size of cross-section, length, location, and position of the column.

### Dead Load Calculation for a Building

**Dead load** = volume of member x unit weight of materials.

By **calculating** the volume of each member and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate **dead load** can be determined for each component.

### Live load calculation

For Live Load calculation you have to follow the permissible Live load values in IS-875. Generally for residential building purpose we take it 3 KN/m2. The value of LIVE LOAD is changes as type of structures & for that you have to see IS-875

### Load Calculation of Building

Building Load is summation of dead load, live load, wind load and snow load if building location in snowfall area. **Dead loads** are static forces that remains same for an extended time. They can be in tension or compression. **Live loads** are mostly variable or moving **loads**. These loads can have a significant dynamic element and may involve considerations such as impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, etc.

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Md Khaibul AlamVery useful tips its help every engineer in their field.please send that type of tips for civil engineering frequently.

Gopal Behera#Useful

Habibur rahmanIndeed these tips are very useful & helpful in the working field

Abdul Ajeesif we have 4 columns in a floor , should we multiple 10kn x 4 columns to find load? or we can put 10 kN for one floor randomly?

DheerajInterestingly this article has the same errors as seen on another post from 2011

Manjunath hukkeriSeriously I just loved the explanation

U explained each and every bit of it very cleanly

Thanks for this article sir

bodrick ikumbukothanks for the help i really needed

V Ranjith Kumargood