The basic Components of a Building Structure are the Footing, Column, Beam, Slab, Lintel, Doors, Windows, Sill, DPC. Earth Filling, Parapet Wall, etc.
These parts of the building serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing, and protecting the building structure.
Components of Building
Following is a list of building components and the standard size of building components,
A Foundation is the lowest part of the building structure rested on soil below ground level. All loads of building transferred to foundation through–beam and column arrangement.
Its main function is to distribute the load evenly and safely to the ground.
Following are various types of foundations and footings used in construction:
- Shallow foundation
- Individual footing or isolated footing
- Combined footing
- Strip foundation
- Raft or mat foundation
- Deep Foundation
- Pile foundation
- Drilled Shafts or caissons
Foundation size and depth totally depend on the structural and site ground condition. So, there are no standard dimension recommendations for it.
But, For small structures like row houses depth of foundation should be at least 1.5 m from ground level.
2. Plinth Level
Plinth level or Plinth is the offset created between ground level and superstructure of the ding. It is made by constructing a brick wall from ground level to the ring level of the building.
Its main function is to prevent the entry of moisture from the ground surface to the building superstructure.
The plinth height of any building must be at least 45 cm or 3 feet from the ground level.
3. Earth Filling
An Earth Filling or Soil Filling is done between the plinth wall. It is essential to fill the open space left between the ground level to the plinth level.
Earth filling must be very well compacted so that the flooring gets a sufficiently hard surface base.
Earth must be filled to the top of the plinth level. Different materials can utilize as earth fills like soil, coarse aggregate, waste materials, Brick Bat, etc.
Read More: How To Calculate Tiles Needed For A Floor
4. DPC (Damp Proof Course)
DPC is a layer of waterproofing material such as asphalt or waterproof cement at the plinth level.
The superstructure walls are constructed above the DPC layer so that no dampness rises from the ground surface into the walls.
In short, DPC prevents the rise of water to superstructures.
If dampness rises in the wall of the superstore it reduces the strength of the walls and creates unhealthy living conditions.
Also, it created many defects in paint and plaster and ultimately increases maintenance costs.
In the case of Plinth, beams are provided above ground level DPC is not required. Because the plinth Beam itself performs as a DPC layer to restrict the entry of dampness.
Generally, DPC is laid on brick masonry construction up to the plinth level. So the width of DPC is the same as the width of the Brick wall and thickness may vary from 2.5cm to 5cm.
Flooring is an important component of the home. It is one that provided an attractive and pleasant look to the house. Flooring is made by laying tile on it.
There are different types of flooring designs and materials are available,
- Timber Flooring
- Laminate Flooring
- Vinyl Flooring
- Porcelain or Ceramic Tile Flooring
- Natural Stone Flooring – Marble, Granite, etc.
Flooring is provided above earth filling with a base made of cement concrete (1:2:4). The flooring material should have sufficient thickness and strength.
Read More: Difference Between Footing And Foundation
Walls may be made of single brick walls or double brick walls. The single brick wall has a thickness of 100 mm and the Double brick wall has a thickness of 230mm.
7. RCC Column
Columns are vertical members constructed to support any structural frame. Load Coming from the Slab, Beam transferred to column and column transfer load to the footing safely. Building structures may have two types of columns.
Architectural columns and structural columns. Architectural columns primly used to increase the aesthetic appearance of a building while a structural column takes the load coming from the slab above and transfers it safely to the foundation.
Columns may have various sizes as per the structural load requirements. But, for minimum dimension for any structural column is restricted to 9” x 9” or 225mmx225mm.
8. Sill Level
It is the base point of any window in the house or it is a level where windows are placed. The Sill level is very important to ensure evenness in all window levels.
A sill is a height which is ensuring that the proper amount of light enters the house. It also provides easy habitat to look outside through the window without any discomfort. It provides a solid base for window installment.
The sill level of any house should be around 3 ft or 900 mm.
In Sort, lintel safeguards the door and window from excess load coming from above. In residential buildings, lintel can be constructed from concrete or brick masonry.
Generally, the lintel width is as same as the width of the wall, and thickness is between 4” to 6”
The ceiling is not a separate part but is the bottom face of any slab. The ceiling is the most important part of any room because it can be decorated to increase the aesthetic appearance. POP (Plaster of Paris) is a material used for making false ceilings.
It is a location where we can hang decorative items, fans, etc to increase the architectural view of the room.
Ceiling height is kept from 9’ 6” to 10’ 6”. (it can be more or less as per requirement)
Chhajjas is also called Weather shed. This is a structure that is constructed above the window projected outside from the window face.
The main function of the weather shed is to restrict the direct entry of rainwater and sunlight. Chhajjas are constructed from reinforced cement concrete.
Length of Chhajjas = Width of Window + 0.15m Bearing on both Side
Width of Chhajjas = 0.45 m to 0.60 m.
12. RCC Beam
RCC Beam is an important component in any frame structure. The beam is a horizontal member which connects columns on both sides.
Its main function is to take the load from the upper structure and transfer it to the column.
Generally, the column to beam connection is called direct support while the beam to beam connection is called indirect support.
In most cases, the beam is supported by two columns, and the most rarely used is the cantilever beam.
Beam minimum dimension is 9” x 9” (Thumb Rule)
13. Roof or RCC Slab
The roof is an essential structural component of a building for any structure, which provides protection again environmental factors like sun, wind, and rain.
Generally, All roof rests on sidewalls and required anchoring so that wind and another mechanical impact cannot destroy them.
Roofs may have different shapes, but flat and sloped roofs are more popular. Typically most roofs are constructed from RCC, stone slabs, tiles, etc.
Generally, RCC Slab Thickness can have a minimum dimension of 4” to 6” as per requirement.
Doors are the main entry and exit point of any house. Without doors, there will be no security in the house. They are one which separate the one room from others.
Doors have a lock-key facility, so we can lock the house by locking the door and going out freely. They are made of strong materials like steel, wood, and iron. Therefore, they are not easily breakable.
There are different types of doors used in the house,
- Hinged Doors
- Dutch Doors
- Roller Doors
- Bifold Doors
- Sliding Doors
- Pivot Doors
- French Doors
- Panel Doors
- PVC Doors
- Flush Doors
The main door of the drawing–room, bedroom, the kitchen may have a width up to 2’6” to 3’ and other rooms like bath, W/C is 2’ to 3’. The height of Doors is almost 7’ every time or up to lintel level.
Read More: 25 + Types Of Doors For Your Perfect House
Windows are one of the essential components of any house or building. It is one that allows fresh air and light to enter the house. Without the window, the house becomes a darkroom or jail.
Windows are provided at sill level and their height is extended up to lintel level. There are various types of windows used in houses like
- Single Hung Windows
- Arched Windows
- Awning Windows
- Bay Windows
- Bow Windows
- Casement Windows
- Garden Windows
- Glass Block Windows
- Round Circle Windows
- Skylight Windows
- Sliding Windows
- Transom Windows
Window opening width may change depending on requirement but its height is generally kept at 1.4m from sill level or up to the bottom of the lintel.
16. Parapet Wall
It is a low–height wall built along the edge of the roof, terrace, walkway, balcony, etc.
Parapet walls can be constructed using different materials like reinforced cement concrete, steel, aluminum, glass, etc. It is generally constructed with a single brick wall.
Parapet wall height is 3 ft or 0.90 m.
17. Waterproofing on Terrace
The damp proof course is the protective layer to restrict the movement of moisture, and water through the roof slab.
For DPC on the roof flexible materials are used which provide a lesser number of joints like mastic, asphalt, bitumen felts, plastic sheets, etc.
Coping is a structure that is constructed on top of Boundary walls & parapet walls etc. to protect rainwater directly store on brick masonry walls.
The main function of coping is to drain off rainwater during the rainy season & improve the aesthetics of the structure/wall.
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