How to Calculate load on Column, Beam & Slab:
For calculations total load on columns, Beam, Slab we must know about various load coming on the column.
Various Loads Acting on Column:
1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors
2) Beams Self Weight per running meter
3) Load of walls per running meter
4) Total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self weight)
beside of this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments which have to be considered in the final design.
The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD Pro.
These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this are highly recommended nowadays in field.
for professional structural design practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations.
we know that the Self weight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 240 kN and Self weight of Steel is around 8000 kg/m3.
So, if we assume a column size of 230 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 3 meters standard height, the self weight of column is around 1000 kg per floor, that id equal to 10 kN.
While doing calculations, we assume self weight of columns are between 10 to 15 kN per floor.
We adopt same method of calculations for beam also.
we assume each meter of beam has dimensions of 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness.
So, the self weight will be around 2.5 kN per running meter.
we know that, the Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter.
For a 6 inch thick Brick wall of 3 meter height and a length of 1 meter,
The load / running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg,
which is equivalent to 9 kN/meter.
This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique.
For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter.
if your are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 4 kN/meter, use of this block can significantly reduced the cost of the project.
Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm.
So, Self weight of each square meter of slab would be
= 0.125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN.
Now, If we consider Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter.
So, from above data we can estimate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter.
Factor of Safety:
At the end, after calculating the entire load on a column, do not forget to add in the factor of safety, which is most important for any building design for safe and convenient performance of building during his design life duration.
As Per IS 456:2000, the factor of safety is 1.5.